Thursday, February 28, 2019
NUTRITION training ON FOOD LABELS A WASTE OF TIME AND MONEY? upkeep teaching on solid solid forage labels is very expendful and availful for consumers it is not a waste of time. In this essay I allow indite close to the history of feed labelling and later I will slim down on consumers who should infer nutrient labels and those consumers who read the food labels. After that, I will focus on the importance and the advantages that culture on food labels exhaust.In the last part, I will write more or less problems that customers wee when reading instructions on food labels. solid food labels came legally to life-time in 1906. Everything started in the USA beca commit the Food and Drug bit express that food labelling is needed to protect consumers from economic harm to reducing consumers risk of chronic disease. In 1993, the provisions Labelling and Education Act (NLEA) required mandatory food labelling on most fruits excluding coffee, spices, raw foods and enter tain away foods.Regulations apply more often than not to processed and packaged foods and require precise nurture on food labels alike name of the food, list of nourishings (fat, sodium, make sense carbohydrates, provenderary fibre, proteins, vitamins A and C, some minerals, calories and Kilo calories), the name and address of the manufacturer, the hind end of origin, serving sizes, expiry date, nutrient content claims, health claims and information about Recommended Daily Intake (RDA) of nutrients while consuming 2000 calories.In the European Union, legislation on food labelling wants to protect, inform and help society to make conditioned choices. Every manufacturer should provide the required information to ensure that consumers will be satisfied when buying their intersections. Food labelling regulations help the consumer to buy safer food. throng argon more confident when choosing products if they know what a particular product consists of. Nowadays most of the sust enanceal labels be very advanced and depute detailed information about each nutrient and ingredient.Consumers read the labels mostly to repair their aspiration in beloved nutrients (proteins, fibre, good fat, vitamins and minerals) and minimize intake of unhealthy nutrients (saturated fat, sodium, cholesterol) that a particular product contains. Those who experience cardiovascular problems, be overweight and obese or have type 2 Diabetes should read fare labels very c ar fully to avoid high intake of nutrients which are signifi stubt risk in causing or worsening the illness.Consumers who are allergic to certain foods use nutrition labels to find information about the ingredients that they must(prenominal) not to eat. The most common allergic foods are milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, steer nuts, peanuts, wheat and soybeans. Some of the above foods may cause instant demise or digestive problems like celiac disease or lactose intolerance. Also, the elderly people should read th e labels to meet their dietary requirements, which differ from former(a) age groups. Pregnant women should control their Vitamin A intake derived from animal variety meat and increase their intake in folic acid.Vegetarian and vegan groups will find nutritional labels very useful particularly about the proteins and ingredients derived from animals. Another group of consumer reads information on food labels for personal reasons, for instance to exclude genetically modified foods or religious reasons. Research findings in variant countries show that significant amount of moneys of consumers use nutrition information on food labels. Surveys done in the get together Kingdom have shown that 58% of those interviewed use nutrition labels.Those people bonk their diet as an important part in their lives. 17% use the labels for nutritional advice. Another study in America has shown that society is fire in nutrition food labels and use them while shopping or at home. The enquiry showed th at people with more than high school nurture are more likely to read the labels. In Canada consumers with small monetary income, the elderly and less educated were less likely to use and rede nutrition labels. In Australia and New Zealand, 34% of consumers read the nutrition food labels.Significant groups of parents with young children usually use food labels to check the information about fat and sugar intake. Another advantage of nutrition information on food labels is that consumers look at the labels when buying unknown food products (for typesetters case from different parts of the world). It allows people to try exotic and preposterous cuisines. eatable labels are guides to healthy eating and improving diet in beneficial nutrients. They help to avoid bad nutrients and remove bad products from our diets.For instance, manufacturers must inform on food labels that the product contains hydrogenated fat which is more calumnious than animal fat. Nutrition food labels draw our attention to healthiness. In America, surveys present that consumers compare food products to purchase the ones with get fat and sodium amounts. instruction on food labels positively influences consumers that would like to prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Those consumers get hold of low fat and low sugar products. in that respect has been found a connection between reading the labels and losing weight.In other words, people are more aware of what they eat and make their decisions consciously. Scientists from two American Universities estimated that the make sense monetary make headway of decrease in body weight was $63 to $ 166 billion over a 20-year period of the costs of the NLEA. Food labels too help to reduce deficiency in certain nutrients. For example costumers who lose iron or fibre in their diet can intimately choose food which is high in those nutrients while reading information on the back of the packaging. Legislation on food labels has brought anoth er benefit for consumers.Manufacturers have to follow the rules and cannot wrongly label products. The Food Standards Agency in America is responsible to protect customers against dishonest manufacturers. Retailers must label their product appropriately and must describe it correctly. Labelling food is not only good for consumers but also for manufacturers. They recognized that the more information they show on the labels the better product will sell. It is a great deal for consumers who can find out more details about new products. There is a campaign running around the world called 5 a day.With these words health organisations try to convince consumers to eat at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables every day. Manufacturers and retailers in the UK joined the syllabus and present the information on their food labels. The Information draws consumer awareness and helps them to get word that eating more fruits and vegetables will reduce the risk of certain diseases like cardiovas cular disease. Apart from regular nutrition information on food labels on the back of the packaging, manufacturers present some coloured, highlighted instructions in the foregoing of the packaging.This message is much easier for customers to understand than the directions from the back of the product. Usually the information shows the amount in grams per 1 serving and the percentage of daily intake of the nutrient (calories, fat, sugar, protein, sodium / salt). On the other hand, nutrition information on food labels needs some improvements. Food labels should all look the same and equally present the same list of nutrients with the same percentages and amounts. It will be easier for the consumer to suck one kind of label.Unfortunately, every manufacturer labels their products differently. Consumers do not have time to spend hours in a food store. For example, a cooperative retailer in the UK presents its own labels which describe high, medium and low to help consumers to choose healthier products and understand the label more. In fact, industry organisations see it as misleading information considering that these labels could be problematic to sell for example fat in food which is indeed very beneficial to arrest balanced diet.The next problem is that the consumers lack an soul of the function of different nutrients presented on the labels. The European Heart Network found out that consumers wide read nutrition food labels but do not fully understand them. Often, amounts of nutrients require calculations and consumers do not have enough experience about the different nutrients that are important in their diets. The Public health Nutrition journal informed that converting information from grams to grams per serving size caused difficulties.Nutrition labels should respond to consumer needs and give clear and simple instructions. In conclusion, nutrition information on food labels is not a waste of money. The intellection of presenting this information i s great because it helps customers to see what packaged food contains and choose the top hat product that suits them. The information on food labels gives instructions for people who are allergic and have food intolerances. It is also a guide for the consumer on how to start or maintain eating a balanced diet and how to avoid unhealthy and harmful nutrients.However, nutrition information on food labels still needs improvement to enable better public understanding and this is an area that needs to be addressed. References 1. Angela Shine, Seamus OReily, Kathleen OSullivan (1997) Consumer use of nutrition labels. British Food Journal, Vol99, Iss8, p 290-296 2. Carolyn D. Berdanier et al. , (2002), Handbook of nutrition and food, California, CRC Press. 3. European Public Health Alliance, (2005) Food labelling in the EU purposes, principles and challenges uniform resource locator http//www. epha. org/a/2006 4.Food and Drug Administration, (2011) Food allergies What you need to know, U RL http//www. fda. gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/ucm079311. htm 5. Food Standards Agency, 2010, Understanding labelling rules, URL http//www. food. gov. uk/foodlabelling/ull/ 6. Food Standards Australia, New Zealand (2011), Labelling of food. URL http//www. foodstandards. gov. au/consumerinformation/labellingoffood/ 7. Gill Cowburn, Lynn Stockley (2005). Consumer understanding and use of nutrition labelling a authoritative review, Public Health Nutrition, vol16.Pg 695-708 8. Hawkes Corrina (2004), Nutrition Labels and health claims the global regulatory environment, Geneva, World Health Organization. 9. Howard Moskowitz, Michele Reisner, Jonhn Ben Lawlor and Rosires Deliza, (2009), Packaging Reasearch and Food Porduct Design and knowledge, Iowa, Wiley-Blackwell A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Publication. 10. Labels and Labelling Data and Consultancy Services Ltd, (1984), Guide to food labelling, sidetrack 2 Claims and misleading descriptions Labels-Law and Legislation England 11 . M.L. Neuhouser, A,R Kristal, R. E. Patterson (1999), Use of food nutrition labels is associated with lower fat intakeJournal of the American Dietetic Association. Vol99, progeny 1, pg 45-53. 12. depicted object Health Service, 2009, Buy healthier food. URL http//www. nhs. uk/Livewell/loseweight/Pages/readingfoodlabels. aspx 13. Nayga, R. M. , Lipinski, D. and Savur, N. (1998), Consumers Use of nutritional Labels While Food Shopping and At Home. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 32106120. inside10. 1111/j. 1745-6606. 1998. tb00402. x 14.Stephen Havas, Jerianne Heimendinger (1995), 5 a day for better health-nine community research projects to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, Public Health Reports, vol110, issue1, pg68-79. 15. Variyam, Jayachandran N. and Cawley, John, Nutrition Labels and Obesity (January 2006). NBER Working Paper Series, Vol. w11956, pp. 16. Variyam, J. N. (2008), Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes?. Health Economics, 17695708. doi10. 1002/hec. 1287 17. Vernal S. Packard, Jr (1976) Processed Foods and the Consumer. Additives, Labelling, Standards and Nutrition. Ontario, Burns MacEachern Limited.
Amy TanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ÅMother TongueÃ¢â¬Â and Gloria AnzulduaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ÅHow To Tame A Wild TongueÃ¢â¬Â Essay
Identity is the essential core of who we argon as individuals, the conscious experience of the self inside Kaufman (Anzulda 62). plan of attack to America and oratory more than one language, I a lot administration similar situations as Gloria Anzalda and Amy topaz. Going to blue school where ain image is a big part of a students nutrition is very nerve racking. American Values are often squeeze upon students and a certain way of life is expected of them. more times, in America, people look down on people who do not accept the American Way of Life. The struggle of fitting in and accepting the cultural background is a major point in both essays, _Mother Tongue_ by Amy erythema solare and _How to Tame a Wild Tongue_ by Gloria Anzalda, which the authors argue similarly about. Both essays can be related to my life as I experience them in my life at category and at school.High school overly has an unparalleled reputation of students stressful to fit in with their peers and peer-pressure causing people to accept values divers(prenominal) to their own, which is similar to Anzaldas case. In Anzaldas essay, she reflects on the situation that many people face in a ghost zone of many different farmings. She begins by explaining how she felt unaccepted by all groups, Americans, Mexicans, and other Spanish speakers. Many people are withal forced accept certain cultures over the other. Anzalda was accused by various Latinos and Latinas of a being a Pocho, cultural traitor. Anzalda was spurned by many Latinos and did not mix well with Americans either. Gaining respect of peers is also very hard in high school.Living with parent that speaks depleted English is similar in all households and presents similar hardships. In _Mother Tongue_, Amy Tan mainly focuses on the hardships of adapting to American culture. Tan also avoids to being in situations where her mother tries to communicate herself. Amy is red-faced and quit while her mother was cheering at the stockbrokers boss in her impeccable English (Tan 317). Amy is often gangrenous of her mothers broken English and avoids speaking up in those situations.In both essays, the authors explain the consequences of foreign languagespeakers face in an American predominant society. Anzalda is usually afraid to express herself real because many times the outcomes discourage her to do so. Anzalda recalls being caught speaking Spanish at recess which was good for three licks on the press with a sharp ruler and being sent to the corner of the schoolroom for trying to tell the teacher how to pronounce her name. The outcome of trying to express herself in her true nature often got her punished severely.Tan olfactory sensations little fortunate to have been in an immigrant family because many of her opportunities were taken absent because of that. eon growing up, Tan believed that because her mothers English had an effect on limiting her possibilities in life (Tan 318). Amy Tan thought that while living in fear of not fitting in, the opportunities were taken away from her. The stunted language skill development, in immigrant families, could affect their success in school and other achievement tests (Tan 318).The essays differ from each other because in Amy Tan actually accepts parts of American culture, while Anzalda resists including the American lifestyle into her own completely. Anzalda is bitter about the fact that she is forced to accept the American culture. She claims that requiredtwo speech classesto get rid of the accent were a violation of the First Amendment (Anzalda 54). But Amy Tan struggles to incorporate the American lifestyle at many times. Tan fights the classify Chinese students go into engineering and struggles to excel in English earlier than engineering (Tan 319).In conclusion, in America, foreign language speakers often feel disadvantageous to Americans that have more resources to exploit. But both authors still associate that preserving thei r heritage is important and should it should not be lost while trying to fit in. While speaking many languages and going to high school in America, the essays are closely related to my own life. I realized that gaining some new culture and losing some of the old culture is best to adapt to the new a country and different people. rapprochement the cultures and languages forms our identity.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
There are several policy-making influences that be the constructivist curriculum theory. Before the 1900s, the principles of constructivism were not very well regarded beca usage it was generally thinking that classroom instruction should be rigid and that teachers should be the sole germ of knowledge and while students only task in the classroom is to absorb that knowledge (Kitchener, 1986). During the 1920s, educators such as Jean Piaget and lavatory Dewey, began calling for educational reforms to adapt more democratic curricula that make use of constructivist ideals (Kitchener, 1986).These people inspired political movements that called for a different approach to acquisition. These political influences prompted the establishment of organizations that sought to veer away from the handed-down learning methods. peerless such organization which was formed is the National Council of Teachers in Mathematics (NCTM). The NCTM motto how traditional methods called drill and kill n umbed students minds and made learning inapplicable to practical circumstances and began to launch political and educational movements think to help teachers facilitate learning more effectively in the classroom (NCTM, 2008).However even at the present, constructivist educational reforms have besides to trail root in American lawmaking. Still, there are instances when political testament is raised by the public to find new ways to make unnecessary quality education. One such instance was in the latest resign of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) worldwide scrutiny which showed that American students were performing poorly based on the world standards (AGI, 2008). This prompted movements that yet again called for a different approach to education outside of the traditional lecture methods.In 2002, the U. S. House Subcommittee on Education mend introduced legislation that sought to overhaul the current research methods for deriving effective te aching method practices and better explore constructivist approaches (AGI, 2008). This legislation is known as the Education Sciences Reform Act (AGI, 2008). In conclusion, it can be said that the constructivist curriculum is politically tied with the publics desire to have better works educational models for their children. This want is what has driven movements to exist and call for government to salute the problem.
pull ins the cardinal m cardinaltary statementsIncome arguing, Statement of Retained Earnings, commensurateness Sheet, and Statement of immediate payment Flows. report as the language of disdain is discussed along with an invention of the versatile users of news report discipline. Financial and Managerial accounting ar comp bed. The four slipway to organize a personal credit line proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company, and corporation, atomic number 18 discussed. An introduction and contrast of the Financial chronicle Standards venire (FASB) and the external Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is done.The Entity given, Continuity (Going Concern) Assumption, historical apostrophize Principle, and Stable Mo crystallizeary unit of measurement Assumption atomic number 18 explained. The accounting equation Assets = Liabilities + shareholders Equity is presented along with definitions and explanations of each component of the equation. A detail p resentation of each of the four previously mentioned fiscal statements is given. Each account classification of the financial statements assets, liabilities, stockholders legality, revenue, and expenses are thoroughly explained and examples of common account titles apply are given.The process of evaluating a company through the use of the financial statements is shown. A discussion of rail line ethics in accounting decisions is done. An death of chapter succinct problem emphasizes the preparation as wellhead as understanding of the financial statements. An accounting vocabulary section explains either the new accounting terms. The abolish of Chapter Access Your Progress allows the scholar to shape how well he grasped the breeding presented in the chapter. Traditional exercises and problems solidify the students understanding of the material. direction Outline . Define a. Financial Accounting b. Managerial Accounting c. course Financial and Managerial Accounting 2. D escribe the users of financial information a. Individuals b. credit line Managers c. Investors d. Creditors e. Government Regulatory Agencies f. Taxing Authorities g. Nonprofit Organizations h. Other Organizations 3. apologise a. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) i. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (generally accepted accounting principles) b. International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) i. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) c. Compare GAAP and IFRS 4.Define and discuss Accounting Principles, Assumptions and Concepts a. Entity Assumption b. Continuity (Going Concern) Assumption c. Historical Cost Principle d. Stable Mo light upary Unit Assumption 5. Introduce the Accounting Equation a. Define and discuss common account titles i. Assets ii. Liabilities iii. Stockholders Equity b. Define and discuss common account titles i. tax income ii. Expense iii. Retained Earnings c. Discuss Paid in corking and Dividends 6. Explain and Prepare the Financia l Statements a. Income Statement b. Statements of Retained Earnings c. offset Sheet d.Statement of Cash Flows 7. Use Financial Statements to evaluate business performance a. Explain the relationship among the financial statements 8. Ethics in logical argument and Accounting Decisions a. The role of judgment in making decisions b. Economic factors c. sound factors d. Ethical factors Key Topics The financial statements are actually reports on how well or poorly a business performed during a qualify time period of time. Chapter one actually presents the four basic financial statements and other pertinent information that is essential to adequately prepare the financial statements.First one moldiness understand that the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) develops the rules and guidelines in the fall in States that must(prenominal) be adhered to in preparing the financial statements. These guidelines are known as the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) develops the pla crystalizeary financial reporting standards (IFRS) which are the international or global standards. indicate 1-3 gives an overview of the joint conceptual framework of accounting developed by the FASB and the IASB.However, the bit announced that it leave behind soon require all American companies to undertake the IFRS. This adoption is currently slated to begin the initial phase in 2014 with all companies on board by 2016. The adoption of the IFRS by all American companies will facilitate the process of comparing financial statements of like industries globally. Also, it will eliminate the need of many companies to prepare several sets of financial statements. Accounting is often labeled as the language of business and there are external as well as internal users of accounting information.Individuals, investors and creditors, regulatory bodies as well as nonprofit organizations are just both(prenominal) of the n oned users of the accounting information. The accounting information is expected to be close as well as timely in order to suffer the need of the users. on that point are two different types of accounting that is needed by the users. They are Financial Accounting and Managerial Accounting. Financial Accounting primarily provides information to the external users and managerial primarily serves the internal users. This information is used in each and every type of business organization.There is the sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company, and the corporation. Each of these businesses differs as far as the form of ownership and other accounting details however, each is bloodsucking on accurate and timely information in order to blend at the optimum level. There are some key accounting principles, assumptions, and concepts used in adequately preparing the accounting records. The first one discussed in this chapter is the assumption entity. This is the underlyi ng assumption, which can be taken by the users of the financial statements, that a business is a separate economic entity.Each business is treated as a separate and distinct entity to enable the accountant to adequately measure the financial performance of the business. The Continuity (Going Concern) Assumption is in any case discussed here. This is the assumption that the business will continue to exist long liberal to use the existing assets for their intended innovation. If the business does intend to continue to exploit and employ the assets as intended, it does not have to be disclosed in the financial statements. However, if there is an intention not to continue to operate it must be disclosed somewhere in the financial statements.The Historical Cost Principle is presented such that one will understand that actual embody is used as the valuing system for all accounting transactions. Actual embody is verifiable as well as unbiased and therefore used to insure that the ac counting records are prepared in a applicable as well as reliable manner. The Stable Monetary Unit Assumption is also presented in this chapter. This is the assumption that the purchase power of a dollar does not fluctuate. That is, one can purchase the same nitty-gritty with a dollar today that he/she could a year ago.This assumption allows the accountant to ignore inflation and add or subtract dollars from change years without adjusting for inflation. This is sometimes difficult for students to understand because they have seen inflation as well as lagging economies however, the professor can assure the student that if needed there is a system developed to reliably contrast statements from varying years. That system, however, is taught in upper level accounting courses. After develop an understanding of this material the student is then introduced to the Accounting Equation.That is Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity. It is imperative that the student understand the importanc e that this equation plays in preparing the financial statements. This equation presents the resources of a company as well as the claims on those resources. One must also note that this equation must be kept in equilibrate at all times. Assets are presented as economic resources of the entity that are expected to be of future benefit. These resources have two types of claims against them liabilities outside claims and owners equity insider claims.See pose 1-4 to help present the fact that the two sides must equal. The influence on stockholders equity by, paid-in capital, and retained earnings must be explained. Also, the manner in which revenue, expenses and dividends effect retained earnings should be explained. record to stress that dividends do not affect net income. They are not subtracted from revenue to determine the net income. Rather, they are subtracted from retained earnings. The financial statements are now to be presented.The Income Statement is the also referred t o as the statement of trading operations because it measures the operating performance. It reports the revenues earned as well as the expenses incurred during a specified period of time. The expenses are subtracted from the revenue to determine the net income/loss for the accounting period. Net income is said to be the single most important full stop in the financial statements. The Statement of Retained Earnings is prepared subsequently the Income Statement because the net income/loss from the Income Statement is needed to prepare the Statement of Retained Earnings.Retained earnings are simply the portion of the net income that the company has kept in the business. The Statement of Retained Earnings shows the changes that occurred in the retained earnings during the accounting period. Be sure to note that the net income is added to the beginning retained earning balance and the dividends are subtracted in order to determine the ending retained earnings balance. The Balance Sheet is prepared afterward the Statement of Retained Earnings because the ending retained earnings balance is needed to prepare the Balance Sheet.Statement of Financial Position is other name given to the Balance Sheet because it actually measures the financial blank space of a company. This statement reports on the assets, liabilities, and stockholders equity of a company. A full(a) way to help the students understand the information given by the Balance Sheet is to tell them that it gives a quick snapshot view of the financial status of the company on one day. That day is generally the end of the accounting period. The sum of the assets is expected to equal the sum of the liabilities and the stockholders equity. See exhibit 1-9.The Statement of Cash Flow measures the cash receipts and payments. This statement reports on cash flows from three major activities operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities. The net increase/decrease in cash from these three act ivities is then ascertain and added to the beginning cash balance to get the ending cash balance. In the financial statement conclusions it is important make sure the students know the purpose of each financial statement. It is also important that the students know the order of preparation as well as the formulas for each financial statement.Good business requires decision making, which in turn requires the exercise of proficient judgment. Making frank judgments in business in general and accounting in event should take into account not only economic, but legal and honorable dimensions as well. The last section of the chapter presents an ethical decision making sit around that is used consistently throughout the rest of the book. Use of the model emphasizes that good decisions are not always based just on the nucleotide of how much money a company can make immediately.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Everyone have dreams andand every dream is unlike with each others. Some of them inadequacy to be a teacher, and slightly of them want to be an astronaut, still for me, I have in interesting and marvelous dream. My dream is to become a millionaire. If I were a millionaire, would life have to change for me?Would I decease it every(prenominal) on myself and my family.But, how would I do that, I already have every that I want for a palmy and happy living, how and what would I resume? Could then I be in a position to make for by others in need, with that money, as, with a million to spare, I could render a lot of help to several people in need. I shall indue few of my money in prize bonds, savingCertificates and the like. In this dash I shall not yet hold fast benefit for Myself but besides help my pastoral in its development plans. Further, I shall open(a) schools and colleges that will realize free education with Board and populate to lament equal students. I shallSet out o n a world tour of duty to know about the living conditions and springer of different nations. It will stage me first hand knowledge slightly life in other countries.I would spend all this money as my contribution towards mans basic needs.Ordercustompaper.com is a professional essay writing service at which you asshole buy essays on any topics and disciplines All custom essays are scripted by professional writersA storehouse of knowledge would be constructed in the excogitate of a public program library, at the doors of which, poor people would get free education. It will contain a large fleck of invaluable and rare books. It would help in making the poor, moralistic and self reliant.This library would have books which, besides knowledge, would too give the readers insight into their behaviors. I would also start for the poor only some vocational centres where they would be taught skills by virtue of which, they would, at a later stage be able to get a livelihood. The plight o f the poor sick in our surface area is absolutely heart rending. I would like to ensure give-and-take ofthe urban poor in good, well established hospitals. This would be financed by me for at least a few patients.
There atomic number 18 several hole-and-corner(a) labels and several nonsymbiotic grease labels within Macys lots amongst each other as a clever marketing technique. However what pass on attract customers to Macys is not the high priced carrys but rather their mysterious label brands that often closely mock the established brand style but for a much cheaper price point. People shopping at Macys are seeking a deal otherwise they could shop at Nordstroms for a pair of 150-dollar jeans so people often come for the private labels.Macys private labels are very clever because of their strategic placing which leads me to cite that the private labels are much than lucrative to the company than the major brands are. head start with major brand DKNY which Macys sells their mission statement is, The mission of the Donna Karan Company, as a design driven company, is to represent the international pulse of rising York in the design, marketing and delivery of a complete lifestyle agr eement to a global customer.DKNY is all about marketing to the bare-ass York style consumer who keeps up with East Coast styles and likewise runs on the more expensive side with a dress averaging or so 200 dollars and jeans around 150 dollars. Although the brand is very trendy and made with quality materials adept would expect at that price, it simply isnt really the Macys ass market. Macys consumer expects to shop for deals on the cheaper end as opposed to personnel casualty to a competitor on the pricey side such as Nordstrom or Bloomingdales.However Macys is very strategic in the placing of this brand because its generally right next to their private label INC and that proves pain because psyche who loves a 300-dollar dress from DKNY nooky walk everywhere a few feet to INC and find one very standardized for much, much less. INC is also urban inspired young contemporary wear however at a much cheaper price point than the clothing at DKNY. The median(a) price for a dres s from the INC department at Macys cost from 70-100 dollars.Macys is very strategic in merchandising and generally will place INC directly next to brands such as DKNY so that when someone falls in love with that 300 dollar cocktail dress they can ask an associate for something similar and walk a few feet over to the INC department and get the uniform look for about 200 dollars less. This is quick because Macys typical consumer is on the lower end of the financial spectrum and they hit the sack people want expensive looks for less money.They use the name brands as bait and lure shoppers in to ultimately buy something from a similar private label, which consumers love because they feel like they are getting a expectant deal. The INC marketing strategy is very clever and brings in more money than their brand name labels. Overall, INC has the better marketing strategy between the two labels because although people value quality they will take a great deal even if it means sacrificin g a bit of quality. The clothing is just as trendy and its what ultimately brings in Macys target market consumers because they are generally shopping for a great deal.This strategy of using brand names as bait has been the rudimentary reason for their success because their goal of maintaining reasonable price points for their customers is prevalent through their private label brands. Its similar to if you are at the food product store and want a box of Lucky Charms for 4 dollars and then next to it is the same cereal but the stores private label brand such as Kirkland for only 2 dollars. Itll gustatory modality just a little bit different but not enough to dictate the difference off the bat.INC clearly isnt the same quality of material as a 300-dollar DKNY dress however at a glance no one can really tell if its DKNY or INC it just looks good and this is what matters to consumers at the end of the day. Macys should implement more private label brands because these are what mak e the gross sales for them. INC wins over DKNY because someone shopping at Macys is statistically proved due to finances to be more likely to buy a less expensive private label brand than the pricey brand name item.
Monday, February 25, 2019
Michael Northrop is originally from Salisbury, Connecticut which is a very small town fixed in the Berkshire mountains. He says it was a great place to grow up to the age that he lived there. He would also part take in falling out of trees, shooting a BB gun at knock down cans, and playing high school football as a kicker. later high school he left Salisbury and went to untested York, New York to attend New York University (NYU).Once he finished at NYU he worked at both The World Almanac and Sports Illustrated Kids, here he was a senior editor for 8 years. The reason he may be a good writer is because from family lore, he may be cogitate to Jonathan Swift, the man that wrote the famous leger, Gullivers Travels. Here are two more enkindle facts about Michael and his life. He is surprisingly dyslexic and had to repeat the second grade. He also stepped on a yellow jacket nest and was burn by them approximately 75 times.He was also able to take aim a black belt in karate.Michael, as stated earlier, was a senior editor at two news places, so he was already fond of writing so the transition was easy. He came to fame when his book TombQuest Book of the Dead was on the New Yorks Times best sellers attend for three weeks straight. Before this book though, he had a few separate books such as Gentlemen in 2009 and Trapped in 2011. His most youthful book, Polaris, got a comment from R.L. Stine, the author of the Goosebumps series.He said this, The book is scary fun. Loved it This was a great honor coming from such an frightful author.All of his books are great for young adults and are very easy to charm attached to. From his suspenseful books such as Surrounded by Sharks, to his thriller books, wish Polaris, they all encapture you and draw you to read more and more about them. He is all around great author and will always be one of, if not, my favorite authors.
Ethical Food Labeling and Packaging After seeing the ad on television or in the weekly grocer flyer, seeing the existing labeling on a return is what consumers get down to remove informed choices. What started expose to be another form of advertising and last attempt to divvy up a harvest-time, food packaging and labeling has been regulated through the FDA and FD&C to desire certain development. It was decl bed to be the policy of the Congress to assist consumers and makers in reaching these goals in the marketing of consumer greats (Regulatory).Beyond giving the name of the food, net sum of money of contents, name and address of manufacturer, statement of ingredients and nutrition information, a crossing so-and-so still be misleading beyond the principal display panels. ideal and legall(a)y complete labels make sense from the standpoints of both ethics and good rail line (Scott par. 1). Consumers depend on product labels every day to make informed decisions when buyi ng products and those misleading and cheapjack labels make it much more difficult to make good purchasing decisions.Proper labeling to provide the consumer with useful, f veritable information was the rationale for the original FDCA misbranding provisions, and that motivation has not changed in more than one-half a century (Committee). Label information can be apply to mislead the consumer by providing untrue information or to exaggerate their products features. As an example, nutrient information learning low fat, 100% natural or organic have been used on products that left out liable(p) information in supporting those claims.Unlike 100% original, Organic and Made with Organic Processes, which have tight regulations, the FDA has al to the highest degree no regulations active the use of the reciprocation natural. The FDA has not developed a definition for use of the marches natural or its derivatives, however the agency had not objected to the use of the consideration if t he food does not contain added color, artificial flavors or synthetic substances (Committee).A product may contain a claim regarding fraternity processes are commonalty or environmentally friendly, however without the claim universe associated to the actual business consumers are left to think that the product itself lines up with the claim delinquent to mislabeling. There are many cases that the packaging does not represent the actual product. For instance, the packaging of a certain product looks nice and attractive. However, when a consumer opens the package, the product does not look as good as it appears on the packaging.Common deceptive packaging tricks include encasing small products in large containers or diminish the amount of the product in a box (Margaret). Manufacturers have downsized their product, exclusively kept the same price and near the same package with a new net weight listed, looking very similar to the previously big size on the shelves not too long ago (Sullivan). As long as the products didnt falsely do all the above and keep the net weight at the same amount, the manufacturer is abiding by the packaging and labeling act.Slack-filled packaging reveals packaging that looks empty or having less of the product than it could actually contain. Yet again, there are coherent reasons as to why the consumer pays for air. Companies using same sized containers to sell different-sized products to come through on packaging costs, added space helps air circulate, preserving freshness and other statements regarding why food items are not packed full can and have been justified (Sullivan).Sullivan maintains that ultimately the reason is to mislead consumers receivable to the perception that the larger the box, the better the deal. Concerns about environmental and ethical values are closely related. Customers are increasingly seeking to purchase products from companies that are taking distribute of our environment (Carbonfree). The Feder al Trade Commission regulates environmental marketing claims so consumers can be reasonably confident that any promises apply to most of the packaging or contents of the product and not to minor, incidental components(Margaret).Excessive topic or wrapping and the harms caused by non-biodegradable materials have become a hottish topic and companies have realized the public is equally concerned about the ethics of packaging. Not all having safe and effective packaging equipment qualifies companies as cosmos ethical, but the processes and working conditions of employees are under the microscope as intumesce. As an example, a company that produces sugar can have the claim of being Carbon Free.For many consumers, this sounds good and well intentioned, however the claim is not directly for the product but preferably meant for how the product was manufactured. Without statements binder the two together the general public will continue to be misled or misinformed. The claim of packag ing made out of recycled material when only a small percentage of the container was indeed recycled is a continuation of product misrepresentation and manufacturers point to shoplifting as an explanation for packing items in difficult-to-open containers (Margaret).Margaret points out that even this issue leads to the environmental issues of how much energy is being expended to produce, ship and properly store the deceptively large packages. Certain food processes have been tolerated that go against what the product represented and are not mentioned on the food label itself. Within the food manufacture there isnt a right to know what is in the food as well as the manufacturing processes. Andrews reported that bear upon incites are substances used to aid food production, which are not found at significant levels in the final product and have no functional or technological effects on the food. Lean finely textured beef (LFTB) differently known as Pink Slime is produced by mashing and sterilizing beef chuck out with ammonia. Even though a large portion of the burger patties produced, including McDonalds up until recently, undergo the ammonia cleanse, there is no need to label it due to the FDA and USDA not requiring food makers to list processing aids on labels (Andrews). The Food Safety and Inspection Service have thirteen categories of processing aids used in the production of meat, poultry and eggs.Processing aids are defined as a material used to process the food, but having no intentional technical effect on the food itself and having the capableness of trace levels to remain in the food after the manufacturing process (Magazine). base on new government legislations, enhanced media coverage and sensationalism, increased company and personal responsibility and heightened consumer vigilance and demands, the growing global food industry is undergoing a new level of increased controls through new certifications, standards and mournful towards global harm onization (Magazine).Consumers ought to break out their grocery calculators and see what gets the trump bang for the buck instead of flashy packaging and wording that captures the wants instead of the needs of its consumer base. As Sullivan noted, compare unit prices provided on store shelves as this is the only way to compare a type of product with another. The outmatch thing a consumer can do is ballot with their food dollars and to vote smart. As regulations within food packaging and labeling get a closer look it is still up to the consumer to make the decisions best for them and their families.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
Are thither more than advantages or disadvantages to this change? In many countries around the human race there is considerable debate about the role of frequent transport. whiz suggestion that is comm save put forward is that it should be made apologize of charge. My belief is that while this policy might be difficult to use in practice, there are at least two fast reasons for considering it.The ne significant problem with making public transport abandon of charge is financial. Councils and local governments need sufficient revenue not only to pay bus tauntrs and other ancillary staff, but also to detect the transport infrastructure. There is a real danger that allowing people to proceed for set down would deprive transport authorities of much needed cash and lead to a lower standard of service. This financial difficulty in free public transport is counterbalanced by a potence benefit to the nvironment.The fact that so many people use cars present means that our cities are suffer from rising levels of pollution from car ingest emissions. One way to address this problem would be to encourage more people to use buses and trains by abolishing fares. If more commuters chose to travel to work on public transport, our cities would almost certainly be cleaner places to live in. other way in which free public transport could improve our choice of life relates to congestion.Currently, the trend is for increasing numbers of people to choose to drive to work. This means that in many cases the rush hour is several hours coarse and it is sometimes almost out of the question to travel across a city. It is likely that this level of congestion would be reduced by making public transport free. My conclusion is then that there are more advantages than disadvantages to free public transport, but this policy may be financially impossible to implement.
Practical implications of each term are included for the public assistance of placements interested in applying theory in practice. Key words disposalal cohesion, action trunks, respectfulness, finish of tradition, complete concrete bodys, and symbolism Organizational tackiness According to Etzioni (1961), cohesion seat be defined as a positive expressive singingship among two or more(prenominal)(prenominal) take a leakers that atomic number 50 reinforce negative and positive norms (p. ).He further differentiates cohesion bonds among persons of the same rank, peer cohesion, and cohesion bonds between persons of different ranks, hierarchical cohesion. The distri exceptor point to which peer cohesion survives in spite of appearance an controling body fuck determine how quickly norms that are held by the majority of a attached throng or held by the most influential persons inside a group completelyow for be accepted by the remaining group participants. I n opposite words, peer cohesion dictates the degree to which actors in spite of appearance a given group are seeming to mimic or succeed each some others fashion and/or take to be.It has also been suggested by Homans (1951), that there is a direct correlation between the frequency and endurance of interaction within a group and the level of a groups cohesiveness. In other words, the more group participants interact, the more likely it is that they will adopt each others mannerisms, come inlooks, or orientations toward the larger group of which they are a part (Etzioni, 1961, p. 290). Assuming that norms that are beneficial to a fact constitution are macrocosm fostered via peer ohesion, such as intra-team cooperation, the lolly effect could be a passing productive defecate milieu with low employee turnover. Etzionis research implies that giving medications with high peer cohesion tip to pay off low employee turnover, which reduces costs involved with recruiting an d socializing new employees, knowledge capture, and mentioning daily work routines. However, it is important to none that cohesion can reinforce both negative and positive norms, which is to say behaviors that alienate an employee from an giving medication as well as behaviors that reinforce is commitment to an composition (p. 80 ). Reagans and McEvily (2003) suggest that cohesion, specifically social cohesion, influences the willingness of individuals to devote time and attack to assisting others within a given group, in addition to serving as a motivator to transfer knowledge to a coworker or participator (p. 245). Ultimately, cohesion within an organisational group, can gain a you vex my back, Ill scratch yours effect that can gain ground knowledge supersede across employees and reduce direct peer-to-peer or intra-departmental competition amongst employees (Reagan & adenine McEvily, 2003, p. 245).In other words, by limiting competition, social cohesion promotes knowle dge transfer, which is an immanent component of a learning and innovative memorial tablet (Reagans & McEvily, 2003, p. 247). Although organizational cohesion can foster exchange relationships that build commitment (Tyndall, 2012, p. 3), it is ingrained that organizational leaders recognize tipping points wherein in addition much cohesion could append group-think and inhibit innovation, per ca-caance, and potentially disrupt a work-groups alignment with the boilersuit organizations values, should a given groups norms infringe such values (p. ). Where possible, organizational leaders susceptibility assess the forefinger that cohesiveness has within their organization, identify the source of cohesiveness, be it an agent of the organization or the organization itself, and take the necessary action to either encourage or discourage the cohesiveness, depending on whether it currently works in kick upstairs of the organization or to its detriment. Action Systems An action syste m embodies a embodied grounds to attain a single goal, as executed by interdependent work units swear outes, businesss, and functions. To attain its goal as a unit, a social action system adopts a structure and a process for organizing member activities (De Ven, 1976, p. 25). An action system is a term used to key out a system that produces an output exactly if the necessary actions are holy by the appropriate parties through with(predicate)out the entire production process-placing emphasis on the relationship that exists between actions and the larger task they accomplish.The human beings of this term serves to instance a theoretical shift away from focusing on work units or groups and a shift toward focusing on the individual pipeline holders powers within the larger group, analogous to speaking in of terms of cogs within a machine (Tyndall, 2012, p. 3). As Parsons (1951) has noted, acts do not occur respectively and discretely, they are organized in systems (p. 7). S imply put, an action system is ground up of two components the actor and his situation (p. 7).By speaking in terms of action systems, the theorist or manager hopes to identify all factors that affect these two components in the name of achieving their end objective, be it lessen production error and lags, and increasing production successes (non-defective output) or any crew thereof. The more an organization can identify all variables, resources, and actions required at each phase of production, the more it can regulate and manage them. Resources and info flows are the basic elements of activity in organized forms of behavior (De Ven, 1976, p. 25).If, for example, an actor works in reception at a doctors office, he/she cogency require a computer, medical forms, chairs for patients, clipboards, pens, etc. By tracking usage and resource requirements over an extended period of time, records might reveal that there are too many patients or too few chairs in the waiting area at any given time. Identifying this fail point will serve as a polarity to the organization to either increase the exit of chairs in the office, increase the number of business hours (to spread out patients), add a second partner, hold out to a second location, or some other veernative.Total prize Management, Lean Six Sigma, and Demings 14-Points of Quality are all examples of how organizations have provided structure to these very practices (Tyndall, 2012, p. 16-18) Just as an organization can identify, measure, and manage tactual resources along each stage of an action system, so too can an organization identify and measure intangible factors that influence workers orientation toward the organization and their assigned tasks. By understanding a workers pauperism for being on the ob, an organization will be better fitted out(p) to frame that employees work and performance paygrade in such a way that will encourage the worker to achieve high levels of performance. By structuring job functions in shipway that straight attach task ownership to individual job holders, an organization can increase the function for that employee, and increase the likelihood of their experiencing satisfaction upon completely their assigned task ascribable to the tasks proximity to its owner (Tyndall, 2012, p. 8). Forward-thinking and adaptable organizations will encourage transparency and two-way feedback between focus and those who are managed. For this reason, it would be flip for organizations to seek input from employees when identifying areas of process improvement within action systems, treat successes across the organization, and openly value collaboration between groups and collegiality within groups (Trist, 1981, p. 43, 57, & 49). ComplianceEtzioni (1961) defines compliance as a relationship consisting of the power active by supervisors to control subordinates and the orientation of subordinates to this power (p. xiii). Sciulli and Etzioni (1996) identify thre e sources of compliance coercion, economic or pecuniary incentives, and normative values (p. 137). This interplay between the governors and the governed directly influences how an organization will function and be sensed by national and external stakeholders.Further, the dynamic between these two parties sheds light on where power, and specifically the power to make change, resides within an organization. As was exemplified in The Challenger Disaster, the expiration to which an organizations members recognize when it is necessary to comply and when it is necessary to geological fault from routine impinges on an organizations ability to adapt and reply to catastrophic events Argyriss (1990) analysis of The Challenger Disaster brought to light the next The problems were not only in the structure, rules, and independent monitoring devices.The problems also were that highly committed, well-intentioned, safety-oriented, can-do players reasoned and acted in ways that violated their own standards and do certain that this violation was covered up and that the cover-up was covered up. (p. 42). angiotensin-converting enzyme could argue that NASAs employees ignored their respective ethical instincts and instead complied with that of the organization, NASA an unsaid practice of ignoring unsettling information in the name of making deadlines, satisfying stakeholders, or perhaps satisfying its own hubris.Regardless, this catastrophe serves to illustrate the negative implications of compliance, in special(a) as perpetuated through normative values. Organizational theorists, such as Ogbonna and Harris (1998) have set out to determine what behaviors within organizations evolve through honest-to-god organic change and behaviors that evolve in response to deliberate actions interpreted by management via compliance. Their research indicates that efforts made by management to alter civilisation within an organization via compliance may prove successful, scarce not fo r a signal unified reason.In other words, an organizations members may all buy-in to a behavioral modification or practice advocated by management, hardly for reasons that are unique to the individual members or groups of members within the organization. Hence, a key implication of these findings is that managements attempting to alter culture should forecast how multiple interpretations of the rationale for change influence the success of the change effort (p. 284-285). Some changed in resigned compliance, some in au thuslytic willingness, and some cognitively accepted espoused values in order to further their careers (p. 85-286). Management might benefit from this insight by carefully selecting which company practices or values they wish to indoctrinate employee with, crossly if such practices do not doctor directly to tasks associated with production and instead relate to rules on how employees might govern themselves socially or culturally within an organization if launching a new effort to encourage the valuing of X, perhaps it would be wise for management to seek employees input on why everyone should value X in order to determine whether a consensus on the promotions rationale exists.This will help ensure that all employees are not only helping to move the company in the same direction, but are doing so for the same or perhaps, intended, reasons. Culture of Tradition A culture of tradition within an organization consists of a subset of individual cultural traditions or shared symbolic systems which function in interaction (Parsons, 1961, p. 11). A culture of tradition is a culture that engender s its participants with values that bosom on traditional or historically patterns of interaction, patterns that have keep up to exist through repeated practice carried out by members of the organization.If an organization comes to value tradition, it could be inferred that such an organization will devalue or office behaviors that encourage or work in supp ort of change, behaviors that we have come to know as organizational defenses or antitank routines. As Tyndall (2012) suggests, defensive routines are rewarded by most organizational cultures because routines indicate a superstar of caring and concern for bulk (p. 13). Further, Tyndall suggests that routines are often protected by the same people who prefer that such routines not exist.Rather than grass detrimental cultural practices, organizations prefer to keep them hidden so as to prevent exposure and embarrassment (p. 13). For the purpose of this paper, let us comport that organizational identity and organizational culture are interconnected. Santos and Eisenhardt (2005) point out that organizational identity helps members make sense of their situation by clarifying the defining attributes and purpose of the organization, thereby reducing ambiguity and providing direction (p. 500).If an organizations current culture, a culture of tradition, is borne out of circumstances f rom cubic decimetre years ago, it can be inferred that there will a undo or lack of alignment between the direction the organization inescapably to be going in and the direction it actually is going in. Santos and Eisenhardt go on to suggest that Organizational members actively perform collective sensemaking (Weick 1995) through which they gain awareness of new information, share interpretations of prior actions, and converge on the meaning of surroundal changes and appropriate courses of action. p. 500). Assuming that employees are constantly being exposed to new information, but are inhibited on how to make use of or capitalize on such information because of the existence of cultural constraints, it will not only discourage innovation within the organization, but will also stymie employees desire to practice creativity and quest after with the organization. Ultimately, an organization should work to align its identity, culture, and activities it carries out (p. 00), maintain traditions that to not impinge on efficacy of essential processes, and foster an environment that embraces conflict and change (Trist, 1981, p. 47). Complete Concrete Systems Parsons (1951) defines a complete concrete system of social action as consisting of a social system, the personality systems of the individual actors involved, and the cultural system which is built into such actors actions (p. 5-6).A cultural or social system is stagnant, unless the elements included in this are carried out through practice and action via an action system (p. 17). He further elaborates A social system consists in coterie of individual actors interacting with each other in a situation which has at least a physical or environmental aspect, actors who are prompt in terms of a tendency to the optimization of gratification and whose relation to their situations, including each other, is defined and mediated in terms of a system of culturally structured and shared symbols. p. 5-6). Parsons emphas izes the need to consider these three elements independently, as no one can be further reduced or ignored in the context of the general theory of action systems. In short, Parsons wishes to draw attention to the interplay that exists between personality, culture, and the society in which these elements exist one cannot consider personality without also considering the context in which it exists or has been cultivated.As an organization develops its sense of self, it might also come to recognize the types of personalities that it supports and the types of personalities that it prefers not to engage. Once an organization is able to identify the types of personalities it attracts or tends to hire, it might then explore the question of why it is that these personalities fit the organization it may be that the personalities hired within an organization are in fact not working in favor of the organizations larger mission, but instead reflect historical cultural practices that actually wor k against the organization.The more that an organization is able to hone in on the types of personalities, behaviors, and the types of individuals that it is best suit to hire or from which it would benefit the most, the better able it will be to refine the organizations culture and overall defining character. This is not to suggest that an organization should attempt to hire one type of personality, but it is to suggest that an organization should attempt to identify the types of personalities best uited for particular work units, roles within such work units, and conceive of ways to encourage hiring, training, and evaluation practices, that foster the development of such individuals rather than inhibit them. Agents within an organization should be mindful of the personalities with which they interact, particularly when presenting ideas to or interacting with decision-makers. Framing ideas in ways that appeal to decision-makers could prove advantageous and foster productive discou rse. SymbolismSymbolism, or symbolic systems of meaning, come into existence as individual social actors engage with social objects (Parsons, 1951, p. 10). An actor comes to expect or associate certain actions with particular results through practice. The dynamic relationship between actions and the associations one comes to assign to particular actions exists through communication that is both implicit and explicit across an organization. homogeneous culture, symbols come to exist by observing or partaking in patterns of behavior if I do X, Y happens, or on a more simple level, if I sit on X, X is a chair.These expectations form pattern consistency (Parsons, 1951, p. 10), or logical consistency that enable people to transmit information to one another in ways that can be easily understood, whether this transmission is intentional or unintentional. These transmissions deliver messages to the pass catcher and it is these messages that come to form symbols. For these reason, symbols are highly subjective and based on the perception of the messages recipient. Organizations must be mindful of the role that symbolism has in shaping the culture of an organization.Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchinson, & Sowa (1986) define perceived organizational support (POS) as global beliefs about the extent to which the organization cares about employees well-being and values their contributions (Fuller, Barnett, Hester, Relyea, 2003, p. 789). Research consistently shows that perceived organizational support (POS) is positively correlated with organizational commitment. In other words, the more an organizations employees perceive themselves to be supported by an organization, the more likely it is that they will commit themselves to the organization and its mission.Further, when people perceive that their organization values and appreciates them, they interpret it symbolically to mean that the organization has respect for them or sees them as having a high status within their organization. Perceiving ones self as having high status, Gardner & Pierce (1998) suggest, will likely encourage commitment to an organization this encourages a person to believe themselves to be worthy of being an organizational member (Fuller, et al. , p. 790).
Saturday, February 23, 2019
Malcolm Xs prison house Education Malcolm X was an African American Muslim minister who, as a teen, spent nigh of his time hustling people and getting into trouble. This presently landed him in prison. During his prison sentence he became self-educated, which led him to be an devise speaker, to discover the true history of African American slaves, and to constitute a strong advocator of human rights. Malcolm Xs A Homemade Education, starts off in a soft and console tone. X uses a persuasive style narrative from the Autobiography of Malcolm X to share his story.By the end of the essay his tone has pitchd to a more smouldering and demanding style. While in prison, X explains how he began writing letters to Mr. Elijah Muhammad, a Muslim leader, tho, not being able to write in an articulate manner, X began getting frustrated because he could not express what he wanted to say. He excessively states that he could not keep a conversation with his prison friend Bimbi or even underst and the books he read because of his lack of cognition.X says that he got a hold of a dictionary and began to copy word for word everything, learning more words and what they meant. He also says went to the prison library and read books almost science, history, and slavery. X was most inspired by Mr. Muhammads teachings. X explains that in one of Mr. Muhammads teachings, Mr. Muhammad stressed how history had been blanchedned, in other words, that black history was left(a) out of history books (95). He says he immediately began to search in the library for books that would inform him about black history.He says he read umteen books about black history and the early struggles for freedom. X states he volition never forget how shocked he was when he read about the brutality of slavery or the illustrations of black slave wo hands being fix up and beaten, children being taken away from families, and dogs hunting down slaves. X explains how he read books about the histories of vari ous nations and learned that the white men had made all non-white people suffer, especially in India and China.He explains how the British white man controlled much of India and how people of India refused to obey orders and were beaten and killed. X also explains the Opium War in China and that some observers in China micturate reported that the world had never known such a detest campaign as is now going on in this non-white soil (98). Reading about the various histories of the world, X found a putting surface theme white men were not liked by many a(prenominal) civilizations. X states that he never knew that reading in prison would change the course of his life.He says his homemade education has given him more than a college stratum could ever give him and that it is worth more than a college education because it is knowledge that no one can take away from him. Malcolm X states he has learned a lot from his reading about black history, he stresses that black men should not only fight for civil rights, but they need to think bigger and win their human rights. Works Cited X, Malcolm. A Homemade Education. The Conscious Reader. Ed. Caroline Shrodes, Michael Shugrue, Marc DiPaolo, Christian J. Matuschek. Glenview, IL Pearson Education, 2011. 92-100. Print.
1. IntroductionThe object of this portfolio is to reflect on my experiences and informations whilst studying BSB124- Working in Business, particularly what I have learnt ab issue my Intrapersonal and Interpersonal competencies. I go out explore my reputation trains through the use of the Big Five gillyflower (BFI), and explain how they can be beneficial/detrimental to my forthcoming public life goal.2. IntrapersonalIntrapersonal effectiveness is defined as Understanding yourself (and your goals, strengths, weaknesses, style, biases) and improving self- fill outment skills, such as time management and stress management (De Janasz, Wood, Gottschalk, Dowd and Schneider 2006, p. 3).2.1 The Big Five historyThe Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a personality assessment tool, which has atomic number 23 dimensions including Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism (Costa and McCrae, 1992). Research has been conducted to explain how heap with change levels of these traits will perform in spite of appearance the oeuvre. Research conducted, shows that conscientiousness and emotional constancy ar positively cor related to with clientele performance in virtually all occupations (Anderson and Viswesvaran 1998 Barrick and Mount 1991 Salgado 1997 Tett et al. 1991), extraversion has been found to be related to job performance in occupations where interactions with others are a epoch-making portion of the job (Barrick and Mount 1991 Mount et al. 1998), agreeableness is said to be positively associated to ratings of aggroupwork, and bleakness to experience has been positively related to training performance (Barrick and Mount 1991 Salgado 1997).As you will see in Appendix 1, I am highest in agreeableness, followed by extraversion then openness to experience, with my lowest ratings being conscientiousness and neuroticism. These results are important, as I see myself working as a universal Relations representative for a large, international corporation within the next five (5) to ten (10) years (preferably for a charity cheek such as Ronald McDonald HouseCharities).My personality test scores suggest that I am sympathetic, modest, straightforward, sociable, enthusiastic, imaginative, confident and even-tempered however, I am non very thorough, and there is definitely room for improvement with my organizational skills (Costa and McCrae 1992). jibe to the handbook of personality (Oliver P. John et al.), being high in extraversion means that I very sociable and am suitable for positions of leadership.This is pertinent to my long-term life history goal, as look for conducted on seek.com shows that leadership qualities as well as social/networking skills, are valuable within the Public relations industry (see Appendix 2 for job advertisements). Further research into the requirements of obtaining a position within the Public Relations industry would delegate that task and goal directed behaviou r as well pissed organizational skills are required. These qualities are consistent with the personality trait of conscientiousness. As mentioned previously, my personality test scores indicate that conscientiousness is an area in which has room for improvement.I feel that my personality profile reflects many strengths as well as weaknesses, especially in terms of my likely work pose performance. As mentioned passim this section, I am high in agreeableness and extraversion, and low in conscientiousness. These results are consistent with my experiences within BSB124, especially throughout the group presentation, as I conceptualize that I did a full(a) job in motivating my team and helping others. Although our overall lay was a six (6), I feel that we would have achieved better results had I organized my time appropriately and practiced my part of the speech more than thoroughly (I did the introduction, and had to start over as I had lost my place roughly thirty (30) seconds in) .As mentioned previously, I in lead on obtaining a position within a large international organisation. I believe that my low level of conscientiousness will hinder my success in this surroundings, and therefore, see it as an area that I can point on to further my professional development. I believe that my high level of agreeableness and openness to experience will be helpful,especially as I will be working with a wide variety of flock from all kinds of accentuates/nationalities.A high level of agreeableness means that I will work well in a team environment (Oliver P. John et al.) and a high level of openness to experience suggests that I am willing to learn and try new things (Oliver P. John et al.). This is significant when working with people from different cultures, I dont sleep with how to word this, I am trying to say that I whitethorn see something as conventional however, someone with a different background will see it as strange- hence I will unavoidableness to be abl e to adapt my methods when working overseas.2.2 Learning goal and related activityI intend to develop a number of competencies associated with conscientiousness- in general organisation, only also self-discipline. I will do this by backdrop myself S.M.A.R.T goals (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound). The development of these competencies will help me to achieve my long-term career goal.3. InterpersonalInterpersonal effectiveness is defined as the ability to manage conflict, to build and manage high-performance teams, to conduct efficient meetings, to coach and discuss employees, to provide negative feedback in constructive ways, to influence others opinions, and to motivate and arouse employees (Whetten & Cameron 2011, p.130).3.1 Self-perception InventoryA team is not a bunch of people with job titles, but a congregation of individuals, each of whom has a billet which is chthonianstood by other members. Members of a team seek out certain roles and they p erform close effectively in the ones that are most natural to them (Belbin, 1981).The Self-perception Inventory (SPI) was created to give individuals a simple means of assessing their scoop up team roles (Belbin, 1981). It is difficult to work effectively with people without some liable expectations of howthey are going to perform. Based on the results of the questionnaire, the SPI makes each individual mindful of their preferred role when working in teams. This then allows them to focus on their strengths and improve on their weakness.During his research, Meredith found that each of the behaviours were essential in get the team successfully from start to finish. The key was balance. For example, Meredith Belbin found that a team with no Plants struggled to come up with the initial spark of an idea with which to wedge forward. However, once too many Plants were in the team, bad ideas concealed genuine ones and non-starters were given too much airtime. Similarly, with no shap er, the team ambled along without apparent motion and direction, missing deadlines. With too many Shapers, in-fighting began and morale was lowered.A Summary of my SPI results is in Appendix 3. Results of the SPI indicate that my two preferred team roles are Shaper and Company Worker. A shaper can be defined as someone who has a drive and readiness for challenge, can strive under pressure and is seen as a leadership figure however, they can be prone to provocation and can be seen as rude and intent (Belbin, 1981). A Company Worker is someone who is hard working, self-disciplined, organized and practical, but be seen as inflexible and unresponsive (Belbin 1981). I believe that these results are an accurate reflection of my personality, and are consistent both with my experiences within BSB124 as well as within the workplace. I will need to focus on my weaknesses, as addressed through the SPI, should I wish to be successful in both university and future career development. As with m y intrapersonal learning goals, I will use S.M.A.R.T goals to address the weaknesses above.My results from Belbins inventory, combined with my personality profile, and work experience suggests that, in groups I am likely to pack in a confrontational conflict resolution style. Research indicates that Asian cultures tend to prefer non-confrontational conflict styles, and as a result tend to react defensively when confronted in conflict situations (Rahim & Blum Ting-Toomey et al., 1991). As I consent to work in a large, international organisation in the future and it is likely I will be dealing with individuals from Asian cultures, I therefore need to adjust my conflictstyle accordingly. Thus, again victimization the SMART goals specified in section 2.2, I envisage that a more agreeable, empathetic nature will help me engage in more appropriate conflict resolution styles when necessary.3.2 SPARK analysis
Friday, February 22, 2019
The novel is narrated by the character distributively. Having lose her mother and being the b bely girl in the family beside China, for each one is urgently trying to find herself. apiece began having sex at an early years and now is pregnant accept the father to be Cheetahs friend, many another(prenominal). The relationship is obso permite, Many uses Each as a sex object. Shed like him to love her or at least banknote her more. But he is with another throughout the novel. guard uses metaphors about classic goddesses to describe Each and her conflicting feelings. Each looks to the women in Greek mythology for mogul and strength in her femininity and sexuality.These are things she is missing in her life. Each has been sexually active since the age of 12, she is eer looking for for love in sex. The pulpy ripe tone. The sticky spunk the boys saw through my immature frame, my dark skin, my plane face. The girl center of attention that, before Many, I let boys have becaus e they cute it, and not because wanted to give it. Lid let boys have it because for a moment, I was oral sex or Eurydice or Daphne. Was pricey (Ward 17). Although when it comes to Many, Each thinks she knows what she wants. But with Many, it was different he was so beautiful, and still he chose me, again and again.He wanted my girl heart gave him both of them Ward 17). Ward has created a character so conflicted indoors herself. Each is al airs looking to the goddesses for help in defining the way she is feeling. Aphrodite, goddess of romance and passion, known for her numerous affairs of the heart. Also known as the roman goddess Venus, Aphrodite had one empower and that was to make love.Salvage the BonesThe novel is narrated by the character Each. Having lost her mother and being the only girl in the family beside China, Each is desperately trying to find herself. Each began having sex at an early age and now is pregnant believing the father to be Cheetahs friend, Many. The r elationship is obsolete, Many uses Each as a sex object. Shed like him to love her or at least notice her more. But he is with another throughout the novel. Ward uses metaphors about Greek goddesses to describe Each and her conflicting feelings. Each looks to the women in Greek mythology for power and strength in her femininity and sexuality.These are things she is missing in her life. Each has been sexually active since the age of 12, she is always looking for love in sex. The pulpy ripe heart. The sticky heart the boys saw through my boyish frame, my dark skin, my plane face. The girl heart that, before Many, I let boys have because they wanted it, and not because wanted to give it. Lid let boys have it because for a moment, I was Psyche or Eurydice or Daphne. Was beloved (Ward 17). Although when it comes to Many, Each thinks she knows what she wants. But with Many, it was different he was so beautiful, and still he chose me, again and again.He wanted my girl heart gave him both of them Ward 17). Ward has created a character so conflicted within herself. Each is always looking to the goddesses for help in defining the way she is feeling. Aphrodite, goddess of romance and passion, known for her numerous affairs of the heart. Also known as the roman goddess Venus, Aphrodite had one gift and that was to make love.
Market Structure of the German and British Tour OperatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ Industry Through the Analysis of the Package Tour Prices in the Balearic Islands. Essay
Abstract In this typography we study a ingest of packet boat hobble equipment casualtys of German and British piece doers in the Balearic Islands. ace of the proposes of this study is to analyse if at that place ar signifi natest disparitys in legal injury amid turn performers pay able-bodied to different featureors than those associated to the characteristics of the swirl ( commencement surmisal). These differences in legal injury hold been destineed in Sinclair et al. (1990) by British term of enlistment street girls in the revivify of Malaga and in Aguil et al. (2001) by German hang-up operators in Majorca. The important results come in come forward differences in value betwixt hitch operators not associated with the characteristics of the box rubs offer, that we interpret as an oligopolistic feature of the electrical circuit operators mart. The genereted selective information is also useful to estimate the role that hotel custody assemble. Our s possibleness is to contrast if the association of hotels in strands offset the offer operators food martplace spring.Keywords German and British trip operators manufacture Balearic Islands megabucks pilgrimage harms.INTRODUCTIONThe Balearic Islands could be mavin of the regions that best symbolised the Mediterranean cheer and b distri scarceively passs. This geekcast of actism emerged in the 60s and hypothetical a turning betoken in the evolution of haltism. Before this go extinct few twistist visited the islands and all of them were of the upper class, after 1960 the middle and inflict class mountain afford vacations imputable to several economical and hea indeed changes. One of the nigh important changes was the big m unrivaledy hobble made by turn of events operators, who due to the volume and standardisation of the packages generated economies of scale, and so, kickoffer impairments to patchist who turn over to arrive in mass. European co nsumers suggested a growing tendency to this eccentric person of vacation, partly due to lower prices that, for the kindred final product, could offer piece operators ( buy the farm and magic spellismIntelligence, 2000). This lower price is the result of a bulk talks with the different elements that compose the package electrical circuit, essentially hoteliers and airlines. In the fate up account, we exit concenter on the negotiation with hoteliers, as the principal(prenominal) European twist operators argon vertically integrated with charter airlines. The lack of studies on hoteliers- rub operators price negotiation is due to the non-availability of data tie in to this theme. So, although we accept that confirmable recite is necessary, our suffer choice was to arrange several interviews with different hoteliers to know round the price negotiation with disco biscuit operators. The results of these interviews naughtylight that operators who contract more than ways beds argon those who return lower prices. Obviously, those operators atomic reduce 18 the monstrous ones. So, we fundament sensationt from the acquaint that volumed magic spell operators defend labelet power on mass finiss. The primary(prenominal) purpose of this paper is to study prices that tour operators wee on the package tour brochures in order to stipulate if they operate in a competitive or oligopolistic targetet. If in the innovation take downet operates under perfect competition, tour operators could lay down a marginal-cost price, on the different hand, they could fix a price preceding(prenominal) the marginal-cost without losing seagullet contend if the rake market is oligopolistic. Anyway, the existence of economies of scale in sales, marketing and purchasing, look on that t present ar conditions, which strongly favour concentration in the tour operator exertion (Williams, 1996).Both German and British tour operators dominated the Europe an market in 1999, as septenary of the ten main tour operators argon of these nationalities (FVW Europische Veranstalter in Zahlen, documentation 1999/2000). Moreover, in severally boorish large tour operators fool large market roles in 1999 the seven large German tour operators take on a 83% market sh be (FVW), whilst the four main British tour operators check into the 86.6% of the Spanish market (AC Nielsen). On the other hand, the Balearics attract large bends of German and British tourist, accounting for 70% of the tot of foreign tourists in 2000ii and as exposes Williams (1996) the finishings that are dependent on the British and German markets are in fact locked into relationships with the powerful tour operators in these countries. The beginning(a) propose (hypothesis 1) of this paper is to contrast the market power of these companies when selling the Balearic Islands. By the way, the hotel mountain images in the Balearic Islands, as an association of hotels, vi olate the bounce hash out lower prices with tour operators than an idiosyncratic hotel, and thus, plunder offset the power of tour operators in the Islands. This is the last point (hypothesis 2) that we want to analyse in the paper. Dunning and McQueen (1982) argued that thither are triad conditions for the result of international hotel chains 1) where there are net protestership advantages 2) where there are locational endowments 3) to internalise market transactions. In mass tourism the authors argued that the first deuce conditions do not exist, as the tourism product world sold is largely indifferent to branding and location factor endowment. We do not thing that mass tourism and hotel chains may not be held concurrently, as most Balearic hotels chains arouse internationalise and close to of them are amidst the most important in the world. Resuming, in this paper we depart examine the German and British tour operators industry through and through the psycho summary o f the package tour prices on the Balearic Islands and the roll that hotel chains play. The secern that price could give is not enough, but a gut blast to analyse the tour operators package tour industry. The paper is divided as follows in the next section, we first review the literature concern to tour operators, then we describe the data use in the paper. After that, we show several(prenominal) descriptive results of the package tour prices, in order to report the influence of well-nigh relevant characteristics of the package tour on its price. Then, an digest of variance is done to evaluate the statistical signifi domiciliatece of the inconsistents detected as significant in determining the price of package tours and finally well-nigh observations on the package tour industry are offered before r distributively an overall conclusion.LITERATURE REVIEWThere are implicit statements between those who work on the tourism sector, that tour operators dominate mass destination mar kets and although there are numerous assertions of the importance of tour operators, there has been junior-grade detailed research on this topic. We thought that the package tour industry compendium is still at its beginnings, patronage its relevance in most of the European markets. Several researchers put up discussed the body structure of this industry, but the conclusions in some cases bemuse turned out to be contradictory. Sheldon (1986) argues that the US package tour industry is pola airliftd into a few large stable firms and many blue less stable firms, and terminate that the industry is contestable. Fitch (1987) expresss descriptive assure of market power in the UK package tour industry. Baum and Mudambi (1994) argue that the UK package tour industry is oligopolistic and prone to price instability. Taylor (1996) queries whether the UK industry is contestable or oligopolistic and concludes that the UK market is contestable. Curtin and Busby (1999) expose that due to e conomies of scale, tour operators take a crap long buying power (monopsony) as well as considerable control of the scattering and sale of their product in the market place (monopoly power). The above papers are based in theoretical arguments. Evans and Stabler (1995) use descriptive statistics to argue that the UK industry is shareed harmonize to strategic groupings, where the large firms are oligopolistic and the subaltern ones are competitive. Gratton and Richards (1997) introduce some empirical evidence on package tour prices and tour operators market shares. They conclude that the UK package tour industry is contestable, whilst the German is a stable oligopoly.Davies and Downward (1998, 2000) use econometrics, and the results gave empirical support to the Evans and Stabler thesis of strategic groupings. Concretely, they argue that the UK package tour industry is segmented by size. On the other hand, there are some papers that study the tour operators industry in destination places preferably than in the origin markets Taylor (1995) analyses the package tour price competitiveness in several Mediterranean destinations and concludes that the Spanish hotels are price acceptant, and emphasises the high tour operators negotiation power. Sinclair et al. (1990) examine the package tour prices in Malaga and conclude that there are significant differences in prices between UK tour operators. Aguil et al. (2001) study the German package tour prices in Majorca and come to the conclusion that there are significant differences in prices, no related with the package tour characteristics. Furthermore, due to the antimonopoly legislation, some concentrations between tour operators concur been analysed by The Monopolies and Mergers missionary work (the British recollects on mergers and concentrations) and the European bearing (the European authority on mergers and concentrations). In 1988 The Monopolies and Mergers Commission investigated the acquisition of Horiz on Travel by Thomson Travel Group and report that the British tour operators market was competitive. They exhibit thatwith the side by side(p)s facts the price competitiveness of the market, low profitability, relatively easy entry by new firm to the tour operating industry and higher(prenominal)(prenominal) prices in Germany and other European countries. On the other hand, in 1999 the European Commission investigated and blocked the acquisition of archetypical selection by organizetours alluding to several features that indicated a dominant position on the British tour operators market. By the way, other acquisitions between tour operators of different nationalities investigated by the European Commission perk up been expected not to operate against the competition (Airtours/Frosch good turnistik and TUI/Thomson). At this point, we consider that the European Commission do not investigated the market power that this macro European tour operators can study in a nearly emergi ng on some destinations, as the Balearic Islands, where almost 20% of the tourist are carried by Thomson and TUI, nowadays hold uping to the same touristic group.THE DATAThe data utilize in this paper is from 28 German and 20 British tour operators summer 2000 brochuresiii. The brochures describe in detail the characteristics of each offer (hotel category, proximity to beaches, swimming pool, etc) and give an overall price, not giving a price to each element of the offer. Many of the characteristics described in the brochures are related to the hotel brainiac ratingiv, regulated by law. However it should be stress that the lead rating dont constitute an exhaustive description of the hotel, so there are other characteristics that impinge on package tour prices. Concretely, we consider regularize, hotel star rating, beds in populate, sheath of board, proximity to a state centre, picturesque surroundings, lift, child care, playground, air condition, TV, SAT, garden, entertainm ent, no smoking areas, swimming pool, tennis, bicycles, sports, sauna, gym, golf, style sea view, mini bar, proximity to a earthy area, proximity to beaches, total rooms and floors of the hotel and exclusive to the tour operator. hinderance operators package tour prices for the same hotel vary depending on the specific characteristic of the offer (beds in room, type of board, zone, etc) and of other facts, concretely transport cost, length and time of the year. As in Aguil et al. (2001) we consider, from the point of view of price competitiveness, the influence on prices of products characteristics rather than transport cost and time of year for the present analysis. hence, the present analysis focuses on offers for a stay in one-to five-star hotels in the Balearic Islands, considering sole(prenominal) prices for the first week of August 2000 (high season) and with departure from Dsseldorf and Gatwick.The high season was chosen because that time of the year (May-October) is w hen more tourists visit the Balearic Islands. Nearly the 50% of the tourist that visit the Islands concentrate in the months of June, July and Augustv. The selection of the first week of August was arbitrary. The choice of Dsseldorf was based on the fact that it moves 20.9% of the German tourist that come to the Balearic Islands and for the British tourist, Gatwick was chosen because it canalise 29.9% of British touristvi. Comparisons between nationalities are workable because a charter flights have in mind price from Gatwick or from Dsseldorf to the Balearic Islands do not present significantive differences. We in truth thought that our data is suitable to analyse the tour operators price structure in the Balearic Island. Our previous statement is based in the fact that 8921 tour operators offers associated with 693 hotels were analysed, while 713 hotels is the official number of registered hotels in the Balearic Islands. Furtehrmore, the fact that nearly 90% of hotel rooms are c ontracted by tour operators in the Balearic Islands fall by the wayside us the inference of the results to the industry.ANALYSIS OF THE PACKAGE TOUR PRICESOur first hypothesis to contrast is if there are differences in price due to tour operators and thus, not associated with the characteristics of the offer. The second hypothesis is to analyse the role that hotel chains play in the determination of package tour prices .We first realize a descriptive analysis, to carry on with an analysis of variance. Thus, allow us to insulate the effect that tour operators and hotel chains have on prices, estimating if there are differences and the kind of differences.Descriptive analysisTour operatorsThe variability of the prices of the packages offered are due to several factors, some of them associated to the characteristics of the offer and some related to the tour operator that organise the package tour. To analyse our first hypothesis we have to set apart the tour operator effect by homog enising the offer. We can scarcely canvass prices between tour operators if the offers are homogenous. Hotel star rating, type of board and beds in room are expected to be, in a first approximation, the main causes of price variability. So, the offers that we consider are in a double room with fractional(prenominal) board in a terzetto stars hotel. Figure 1 and 2 present the box-plots of the price in this market segment for each tour operator for each nationalityvii. In purpose 1, it can be seen that, Niag Reisens, FTIs and parliamentary procedure Blaues Meers median(prenominal) price is in a range clear above the rest, while SLR and ger Tours, and TUI and C&N present similar distributions. enter Figure 1 about hereIn the case of British tour operators, figure 2 shows that the positions of the price distributions have a clear order Airtours price distribution is above the rest, then go Thomas Cook and Virgin and finally, humans, First Choice and Thomson are third in the ra nking. Insert Figure 2 about hereA careful reading of this information allows the inference of factors other than hotel star rating, type of board and number of beds in a room in price determination. Although other factors determining price are considered in the analysis of variance, these results point to a differential effect associated with the tour operator. Once we have highlighted the differentiation effect of tour operators, we carry on with its analysis. We dont have to forget that tour operators are intermediaries between the hotel industry and the holidays consumers. Its control capacity of the market in a zone or in a supplicate segment could be reflected twain in hotels, through a low price negotiation, and with customs, offering higher prices in the brochures. The first one, regrettably, can be estimated trough the data, but we can rationalise the possibilities that tour operators have when they establish the package tour price. If they have market power in destinati ons (we assume that large ones have) will have lower prices per room. At this point, in general term, tour operators have two alternatives. First, theycan establish lower prices in the brochures, so its mark-up will not benefit, but consumers on the other hand, tour operators can raise mark-up and get beneficiated. The first choice will show market power with keep to hoteliers, whilst the second will state market power with respect to hoteliers and clients. To focus on its control capacity and its influence on prices, we have created a new changeable product concentration floor that measures the importance of each tour operators offer by nationalities in each market segment, according to star rating and type of board. It has been calculated as the percentage of the number of offers that each tour operator realise in each hotel star rating and in a specific type of board, regarding the total number of offers in this segment. A 10.9% value for this variable to Neckermanns three s tars hotel and half board offers, mean that the 10.9% of the package tours offers in three stars hotels and half board are realise by this tour operator. A dispersion graph between this variable and the mean price by hotel star rating and type of board are shown in figure 3 for British tour operators and in figure 4 for German. Insert Figure 3 about hereThe dispersion graph shows a positive relation between Product concentration grade and the second-rate price by star rating and type of board of British tour operators offers. The Pearson coefficient (0.384) confirms that the relation is significantive and positive. Insert Figure 4 about hereThe same results are accomplished with German tour operators, with a Pearson coefficient of 0.293, but although the coefficient is revealing and positive, the general picture is not so clear. So, the general conclusion for some(prenominal) nationalities is that as the Product concentration degree pluss the mediocre price by star rating an d type of board is higher. Our first preliminary conclusions of this descriptive analysis of tour operators are two 1) There are differences in price among international companies. 2) As the control of a market segment by a tour operator increases, it can fix higher prices. Hotel chainsThe association of hotels in chains is seen, among other factors, as an goal to offset the European tour operators growing market power(Bardolet, 1990, p.228 Doxa, 1988). Regarding to hotels chains and its capacity to offset the tour operators market power, we have created a gage variable with further information called understanding with ttoo which takes three categories 1) the hotel doesnt depart to a hotel chain, 2) the hotel belongs to a hotel chain and it have some kind of promise with tour operators and 3) the hotel belongs to a hotel chain and it have any apprehension with tour operators. Once we have obtained the dummy, we have calculated the mean difference between each category for off ers in a double room with half board in a three stars hotels. We expect to spy that offers in hotels that belong to hotel chains are more expensive than those related to offers in hotels that dont belong to hotel chains, as they are able to negotiate higher prices with tour operators and thus, tour operators charge this higher prices to consumer. Nevertheless, the brochure price analysis reflect different results, as are showed in the following tables skirt 1 tight price for German package tours convey price No chain compass without agreement Chain with agreement (92985) (93257) (90827) No chain -272 2157 (0.7) (0.254) Chain without agreement 2430 (0.06) Table 2 Mean price for British package toursMean price No chain Chain without agreement Chain with agreement (149896) (148909) (139707) No chain 986 10189 (0.7)(0.03) Chain without agreement 9202 (0.01) Tables 1 and 2 show the mean price for each category in brakets, the difference mean prices between categories and its significance in brakets. The results are very explicit and present the same pattern in both nationalities, offers in hotels that belongs to hotel chains with agreements with tour operators have lower cerebrateable prices than those that dont have agreements or dont belong to hotel chains. The results are significantive for British offers, however, for German offers, while the price average difference between hotels with or without agreements is on the limit of the 5% significance, the price average difference between hotel with agreements and those that dont belong to a hotel chain is not significantive. On the other hand, there are non significantive average price differences between hotels that dont belong to hotel chains and those that belong to one without agreements. The obtained results can be interpreted as follow hotel chains that have any kind of agreement with tour operators are more pertain in obtaining higher condescension rates than higher prices , that can mean lower occupancy rates. Thus, if offers are cheaper in those hotels, they could have higher occupancy rates. Supporting our thesis, Dunning and McQueen (1982, p. 86) explained that hotels associated with tour operators will also presumably be able to plan and maintain higher occupancy rates because the parent telephoner is in a control position in channelling tourist towards its own hotel. The conclusions obtained with this descriptive analysis of the hotel chains were at a first scan unexpected, but relevant as the package tour prices fixed in the brochures, reveal that what involve negotiation power is not the hotel chains per se, but the association with tour operators. abstract of varianceThe analysis of variance will allow us to compare the importance that different characteristics of the offer have on the overall price, as well asdifferential effect linked to the tour operator and hotel chains. The first one was detected in preliminary works as Sinclair et al . (1990) and Aguil et al. (2001), while the second one is a new attribution to this field. Its seems appropriate to consider, given the previous results, as determinants of the package tour price the hotel star rating, the type of board and the number of beds in the room. Although the main characteristics of the package tour are covered by this variables, the brochures sterilize up ones mind in detailed each offer and this information is available in our data to improve the analysis. Some of this can be superfluous, in term of its relationship to the category of the hotel or its redundancy. This is the case, for example, with a characteristic such as a satellite TV and TV in rooms or child care and playground. Nevertheless, descriptive analyses also state that the tour operator, the variable product concentration degree and the variable agreement with ttoo have something to rank about the final price of a package tour. With this specification, the signification of tour operator cant be put down to characteristics of the offer not completely covered by the hotel star rating. The variable used to analyse the differences was the price of the package tour specified in the brochure. Table 3 for British and in table 4 for German show the results of an analysis of variance of the variables that turn out to be significant.Table 3 Analysis of variance of the variable price of British package tour. hooklike Variable price reference point DF F-ratio PrF Model 44 281.67 0.000 Residual 2297 tote up 2341 R square=0.841 Variables DF F-ratio PrF Intercept 1 5157.82 0.000 Beds in room 2 291.38 0.000 Hotel star rating 4 210.05 0.000 typecast of board 3118.78 0.000 Tour operator 14 89.09 0.000 zone 10 35.64 0.000 Product concentration degree 1 20.61 0.000 Number of floors 1 8.79 0.003 Room sea view 1 21.98 0.000 Mini bar 1 102.02 0.000 Air condition 1 19.67 0.000 vacation spot 1 15.66 0.000 Picturesque surroundings 1 258.13 0. 000 Proximity to a natural area 1 44.20 0.000 Swimming pool 1 37.23 0.000 Sauna 1 64.95 0.000 Golf 1 18.98 0.000 Table 4 Analysis of variance of the variable price of German package tour. Dependent Variable price Source DF F-ratio PrF Model 58 323.94 0.000 Residual 6467 Total 6525 R square=0.742 Variables DF F-ratio PrF Interseccin 1 5892.90 0.000 Beds in room 3 418.40 0.000 Hotel star rating 4 991.06 0.000 Type of board 3 79.31 0.000 Tour operator 22 21.89 0.000 Zone 14 42.70 0.000 Product concentration degree 1 100.21 0.000 Agreement with ttoo 2 6.57 0.001 Number of floors 1 30.51 0.000 Room sea view 1 187.33 0.000 Air condition 1 10.82 0.001 Mini bar 1 78.96 0.000 Sat 1 51.88 0.000 Playground 1 55.09 0.000 No smoking areas 1 9.26 0.002 Proximity to a natural area 1 71.38 0.000 Swimming pool 1 5.40 0.020 As can be observed in the above tables the variable agreement with ttoo appears notwithstanding significantive for German packag e tours. However, the variable product concentration degree appears significantive and positive for both nationalities. This result show that the long control of a market segment by a tour operator in the Balearic Islands allow it to exert a great market power arrested development higher prices and thus, reveal the oligopolistic features of this market. The identity of tour operator appears for both nationalities significantive. Aguil et al. (2001) explained this results in two ways. First, it is possible that there are characteristics not observable in brochures, which would be associated with the level of quality of the services offered by the tour operator. The second explanation points to the monopolistic nature of competition in this type of market. Sinclair et al. (1990) specify the differences in price to the greater effectiveness of certain advertising campaigns or the inability of smaller companies to take advantage of the economies of scale that the large ones enjoy. Th e first explanation of Aguil et al. (2001) refers to variables as flight schedules, degree of attention, and so on. In our prove this factors has been taken into account. So, the rest of explanations given by authors to this fact reveal, in a wide range, an oligopolistic feature of this market, especially among large tour operators, that permit them to have different strategies one other. Obviously the specific scheme of each tour operator is unknown, but the analysis of the parameters estimated (table 5) offer us an overall strategy, that has been contrasted by the companies portfolios.Table 5 Tour operators estimated parametersPhoenix -10370 Thomson-21473 LTU -6340 First Choice -14170 ITS -5504 Cosmos -11381 Alltours -5196 Thomas Cook -4879 Dertour -5193 Virgin 0 C&N -2571 Airtous 18065 SLR -334 TUI 0 Club Blaues Meer 1166 Frosch Touristik 5070 Niag Reisen 6346 ger Tours 9518 German data is richer in terms of size of tour operators than British data, and so, we can observe large tour operators TUI, C&N and LTU medium Dertour, FTI and ITS and small Alltours, Club Blaues Meer, Niag, ger, Phoenix and SLR. However, British data is sedate by large tour operators Thomson, Airtours, Thomas Cook and First Choice and medium Cosmos and Virgin. Although the mark up of each package tour sold is not so high, the total number of packages sold attend its benefits. Therefore, rather than benefits, market shares are the objective of tour operators. Generally speaking, small German tour operators fix higher prices, except Phoenix and Alltours. This fact is due to its lower capacity of negotiating prices with the supply side, and the relative exclusive distribution system created by large tour operators. When the tour operator is unavailing to reduce its costs due to its size, must fix higher prices and have lower market share. By the way, TUI is the German and European tour operator with great market share and is, among large tour operators, the o ne that fix the highest prices. Its growing strategy through expanding in other markets, allow TUI to increase its market share without reducing prices. That is, TUI can fix higher prices without losing market share.The rest two large tour operators C&N and LTU fix prices lower than TUI. C&N could follow a lower prices strategy to rise its market share and challenge TUI leadership. On the other hand, LTU hasbeen acquired by REWE in January 2001, so the low prices in summer 2000 can be interpreted as an attempt to gain clients and rise its market share (LTU has reduce its market share dramatically from 1994 to 1999). Finally, we have the medium tour operators Dertour, ITS and FTI. The first two fix lower prices in an attempt to rise its market share. Medium tour operators dont have the great negotiation power that large ones have, and so, dont obtain low prices in the negotiation with the supply side, but if they want to become large they have to obtain clients and then fix in the br ochures low prices. The last one, FTI, has during the last years internal problems that conduce to its acquisition by Airtours. This problems can be associated with the high price fix in summer 2000. Alltours, despite its classification as a small tour operator, is among the small ones, the one that have the greatest market share, and we can put its strategy on an equal foot with ITS and Dertour. On the other hand, Airtours is among large British tour operators the one that fix the highest prices. This tour operator is the second in terms of market share both in the British and in the European market. Just like TUI, Airtours has grown through the expansion to other countries and the product diversification. This two facts allow Airtours to fix higher prices without losing market share. Although, Airtours is not the market leader in Great Britain (place hold by Thomson), it behave as it was. The acquisition of Thomson by TUI in 2000 due to financial problems can explain the low price s of the British leader. To sum up, except the small tour operators, the three tourist groups that control the European market fix the highest prices. So, although they have market power with the supply side and obtain the lowest prices in the negotiation, these prices are not diverted into low package tour prices. Therefore, large tour operators have market power both in origin an in the Balearic Islands. We can reflect our thesis with a more general moulding that show the implications of the price elastic bandity on mark up. The theory stars with the premise that profit maximizing firms with market power set price (P) as a mark up over marginal cost (MC), which mark up depends on the elasticity of demand ((), where ( is defined to be positive. ThuspicAt this point, we consider that the introduction of an aggregate measure of the competitive conduct in the tour operator industry is a great encompass (See Papatheodorou, 2001), but we go further arguing that tour operators perform in two related but different scenarios destination and origin countries. In the Balearics Islands tour operators are the demand side and the hoteliers are the supply side. Tour operators are price sensitive, so its demand is quite elastic, and thus the hoteliers mark up is lower. So, hoteliers are concerned in occupancy rates. On the other hand, in the origin countries Germany and UK, tour operators are the agents that supply the package tour to the consumers, so they operate as the supply side and the consumers are the demand side. Consumers behave in to different ways when decide where to expend their holidays 1) Type 1 consumers dont have any special destination to go and will go to the cheapest one. 2) Type 2 consumers want to go to the Balearics. Type 1 consumers are very price sensitive, its demand is elastic and so, tour operators mark up will be lower contrary, type 2 consumers are less sensitive to price, so tour operators mark up rises. This second type of consumers are m ore attractive both for tour operators and hoteliers the first ones can rise its mark up, whilst the second ones obtain a loyal tourism. Although, the mass market tour operators industry as a whole is characterised by small margins, this differentiation between consumers highlights the sham of loyal consumers on margins and question the statement that tour operators put destination-based business (above all hoteliers) at a bargaining disadvantage because they have obtained the inaugural in persuading their clients which destination to visit. Which type of tourism have the Balearic Islands? Cladera (2002) shows that both German and British tourists repeat its holidays in the Balearic Islands (67.65% and 78.11% respectively in 2000). This figures point out that the Islands are a destination that tourists claim and can drive us to tell that the Islands have a type 2 consumers, but we can be in front of a type 1 consumer if the priming coat of visiting the Balearics is the price, so we have to carry on investigating the undercoats for the visits. Aguil et al. (2002) observe that the main reasons for choosing the Balearics as their holidays destination for German tourist are clime (20% of answers), beaches (15.9%), environment and hotel quality (13.4%), transfer facilities (7.4%) and price (6.7%).British tourist give more importance to price (11% of answers), but the most relevant reason is still the clime (21.2%). surround and hotel quality represent 12.1% of answers, whilst beaches are whole a 10%. This figures can be observed by another perspective, specifically, by the number of battalion who have marked each of the reasons. Doing that we can observe that clime is the main reason, marked by 80.2% of Germans and 84.6% of British. While the 63.6% of Germans showed beaches as a coming reason, only a 40% of British consider beaches as a reason. legal injury is influent in the decision for only the 26.9% of Germans, while British are more concern about price s, 45.3%. Environment and hotel quality is marked by 53.9% of Germans and by 48.3% of British. Transfer facilities (29.7%) and night melody (22.5%) is more important for Germans than for British people (12.6% and 15.5% respectively). Furthermore, Cladera (2002) analyses the number of tourist who have selected the price as a reason for choosing the Balearics differentiating by first-time tourists and loyal ones. Cladera conclude that the 34.6% of first-time German tourists and the 45.5% of first-time British tourists consider the price one of the reasons of visiting the Islands, whilst only a 20.2% of loyal German tourist and the 43.1% of loyal British tourist. This figures show the relative less importance of price as a reason of spending the holidays in the Balearic Islands as much the Islands are visited. After this analysis we are able to answer the question tourist who visit the Islands are mostly loyal tourists and the main reason for choosing the Islands is not the price, alt hough British people are more sensitive to prices than German people.CONCLUSIONSThis paper has had two main objectives 1) Examine the influence on the package tour prices of the identity of the tour operator. 2) Determine the role that hotel chains play on the determination of the prices. These have been studied through the price structure of tourist packages in the Balearic Islands offered by a representative sample of German and British tour operators. The conclusions celestial orbit after the analysis permit us to state in alliance with hypothesis 1 that 1) the differences in price between tour operators are due to the different strategies that tour operators follow togain market share, 2) large tour operators have market power both in origins and in the Balearic Islands and 3) The type of tourist who visit the Island succeed in increasing mark up both to tour operators and hoteliers. We really believe that large European tour operators have market power both in origin and in d estination markets, although the strategies of each tourist group can make the market seem competitive. Debbage (1990) also consider this when argued that the suppliers are potentially able to reap the advantages of their oligopolistic and oligopsonistic power to the detriment of consumers and destinations. Relative to hypothesis 2 we can conclude that the fact that a hotel belongs or not to a hotel chain is not appreciared by fixing higher prices in the brochures, that could show a great negotiation power towards tour operator. However, the obtained results reveal that offers in hotels that have any kind of agreement with the tour operator are in mean cheaper. That results permit us to conclude that hotel chains are more concerned in high occupancy rates than in high prices per room. It could be interesting in future research to complement or contrast the methodology used here with alternative approaches to confirm the results reported in this paper.ANNEXFigure 1 piece of ground t our prices for offers in a double room with half board in a three stars hotel by German tour operatorsFigure 2 software product tour price for offers in a double room with half board in a three stars hotel by British tour operatorsFigure 3 British tour operators dispersion graph by star rating and type of boardFigure 4 German tour operators dispersion graph by star rating and type of boardBIBLIOGRAPHYAGUIL, P.M, J. ALEGRE y A. RIERA (2001) Determinants of the Price of German Tourist shares on the island of Mallorca. tourism Economics, vol.7, issue 1, pp.59-74. BARDOLET, E. (1990) Demanda Turstica y Marketing Turstico. Papeles de Economa Espaola, vol. Baleares, pp. 219-230. BAUM, T. y R. MUDAMBI (1994) A Ricardian analysis of the fully inclusive Tour industry. 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Wallingford CAB International.END NOTESi Los tres profesores son miembros del Departament dEconomia i Empresa de la Universitat de les Illes Balears. ii Govern de les Illes Balears (2000) El turisme a les Illes Balears, dades informatives, any 2000. iii Terramar, Spanien und Portugal Neckermann, juvenile and Sport Neckermann, Flugreisen Neckermann, Family Condor Individuell Air Marin, Spanien und Portugal Fischer Reisen, Flugreisen Kreutzer B ucher Reisen Smile anf Fly Jahn Reisen Maris Reisen THR Tours, Jet and Bett THR Tours, Urlaub Mal Anders Tjaerborg FTI FTI, Preis Pardise ITS, Spanien und Portugal DER, Der Sonnenseiten Alltours, Flugreisen 1,2 Fly TUI Schnen Ferien TUI Schnen Ferien excuse World ger Tours,Sommer 2000 Club Blaues Meer Reisen, Mallorca Shauinseland Reisen, Belearen Niag Reisen, Mallorca Phoenix, Flugreisen Sommer 2000 Airtours, spend Sun Archers Direct, Summer Sun Price Beaters Cosmos, Summer Sun JMC, Summer Sun JMC, Select JMC, Essentials Club 18-30 Skytours Thomson, Summer Sun Thomson, Small and Friendly Thomson a la Carte Club Freestyle Portland Direct Just Virgin, Summer Sun Sovereign, Summer Sun First Choice, Summer Sun Eclipse, Summer Sun 2wentys. iv Sinclair et al (1990) point out that hotel rating is a gut indicator of the services and facilities that the hotel offers. v Conselleria de Turisme (2000)vi Govern de les Illes Balears (1999) El turisme a les Illes Balears, dades informatives, an y 1999. vii In each of the boxes, the central lineindicates the median of the distribution, while the height of the box represents the inter-quartile range, the area is proportional to the frequency of observations. The feet declare oneself (at most) up to 1.5 times the inter-quartile range, aiding the detection of observed extremes (marked as circles).