Monday, September 30, 2019

The Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty Derek Matthews International Relations Abstract The Arms Trade Treaty is the result of an international consensus that there is a need for global arms regulation. This belief began to develop after the Cold War in response to consequences facing the international community from countries whom purchased arms unimpeded and used them towards aggressive and oppressive ends.The Arms Trade treaty has been applauded as an initial framework to begin practical implementation of effective arms regulations through the context of international consensus in a way that will reduce egregious human rights violations and increase weapons accountability as well as regional stability. There are criticisms as to the future effectiveness of the treaty because the scope of the treaty covers arms sales, not other forms of arms transfer and because major arms exporters have abstained from participating in the treaty.These realities are staunch hurdles towards the future effectiveness o f governing policies that may evolve from the treaty. Because the treaty has not reached the stage of ratification, an actual analysis of the impacts of this treaty have yet to be seen. Background The origins of the international arms regulation and thus, the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) can be traced back to the start of the Cold War. NATO had an interest in slowing the transfer of advanced military technologies to the Soviet Union.They created the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) to block arms, industrial technologies, and â€Å"atomic† technologies from being exported to the Soviet Union from countries in the Warsaw Pact. This was not a nonproliferation regime and its limited scope proved ill-equipped to handle the emerging problems of the Post-Cold War era. This was evident during the 1991 Persian Gulf War where the Iraqi military was able to build the world’s fourth-largest military with $40 billion in foreign weapons purchases. Lewis, 20 05) After the war, western countries began working on international agreements aimed to stop destabilizing accumulations like the arms transfer component in the Middle East. (Collina, 2012) The idea for these international agreements was proposed by the United Kingdom which wanted a global regime aimed at â€Å"avoiding arms transfers that could destabilize a region, put human rights at risk, or provide inappropriately advanced technology. (Lewis, 2005) The language set forth in this goal would lead to a chain of international agreements and guidelines aimed at reducing illicit arms trade and defining the parameters of what illicit arms trade entailed; the United Nations (UN) Registry for Conventional Arms in 1991, the US begins work on the US Code of Conduct Bill in 1993, the Warsenaar Agreement in 1996, UN Guidelines for International Arms Transfers in 1996,Oscar Arias and a group of Nobel Laureates produce first draft of the International Code of Conduct on Arms Transfers in 199 7, European Code of Conduct in 1998, US passes International Code of Conduct in 1999, UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects in 2001, Organization of American States (OAS) Model Regulations for the Control of the International Movement of Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition in 2003, Great Lakes and Horn of Africa region adopt the Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in 2004, UN begins work on a global arms trade treaty in 2006, the General Assembly of the UN votes overwhelmingly for approval of the global Arms Trade Treaty on April 2, 2013. Shah, 2008)(Charbanneau, 2013) For the two decades following the end of the Cold War, the world has been moving in the direction towards a global consensus on how we should provide accountability and responsibility to the selling of weapons culminating with an almost unanimous agreement laid o ut in the Arms Trade Treaty of 2013 which was passed through the General Assembly of the United Nations with a vote of 155 for, 3 against, and 22 abstained. (Charbanneau, 2013) Reason for the ATT The trade of goods internationally has long been subject to regulation. The import and export of cars and clothes has more restrictions on trade than Ak-47s and rocket launchers. So when the discussion surrounding arms trade regulation began, it was initially just a way for western nations to stem the unfettered growth of aggressive militaries which caused regional instability such as Iraq in the Persian Gulf War.However, once these discussions entered the international arena, it was easy to see the practicality in implementing arms regulation and to contextualize the benefit that regulation would have on preventing numerous other instances of international instability. (UN Conference, 2013) From the Contras in Nicaragua, to the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, to the Lord’s Resistance Army in Uganda, it is easy to see the potential social and human impact of effective restrictions on the sale of weapons. The reason behind arms trade regulations is to stop weapons from falling into the hands of criminals, gangs, warlords, and terrorists who would use them to oppress human rights and destabilize the region.There are economic impacts as well. The unrestricted sale of weapons results in damages through crime, gang violence, and piracy that vastly exceed the initial profits from selling them. UN peacekeeping missions alone cost the world over $7 billion a year and the global burden of armed violence stands at $400 billion. (UN Conference, 2013) ATT Policy Goals To address the lack of international oversight on arms trade, the UN formulated language designed to codify the growing international consensus of what responsible arms trade should look like. Through various concessions to accommodate differing opinions, they formulated a treaty with two rationales in mind.The firs t was to stop sales to state end-users that would use them to undermine global peace and security, violate international human rights laws, impair socio-economic development, or are at risk to re-export those weapons which then might come into the hands of organized criminals or terrorists. The second rationale is to close loopholes in trade regulations and strengthen the effectiveness of legal frameworks to hinder the illicit arms market which provides weapons to end-users whom would normally be barred from acquiring them through legal means. (Kimball, 2011) The idea behind this rationale is to end the prevalence of weapons smugglers like Viktor Bout, whose actions inspired the film â€Å"Lord of War†.These smugglers effectively exploit loopholes in national and international laws to provide illegal arms around the world. (Austin, 2012) The Arms Trade Treaty would also seek to strengthen transparency and reporting on arms trade transfers and the production of munitions which will provide more accountability for State’s actions. (Kimball, 2013) The treaty was created with the original UN Charter Chapter 7 Article 51 in mind which reads, â€Å"Nothing shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs†. The treaty was shaped to allow arms purchases justified through the realm of self-defense and to fight back against regimes that violate human rights.The vague nature of the language still leaves significant room for state differences on what acts will be deemed self-defense or political struggle. The language is also weak on providing a legal framework to deal with non-state actors and terrorism. The policies laid out by the Arms Trade Treaty are primarily aimed towards better control over the export sale of arms; however there is little language to account for the import of arms or for arms transfers which are labeled gifts, or trades. Impacts and Opinions There are 193 Member States of the U N General Assembly. The vast majority of them agree with the ATT, although most have varying reservations to the limitations of the treaty.The treaty is considered a floor of regulation from which to work with and not a ceiling. 155 States voted in favor of the treaty, the most impactful vote came from the US. The development of this treaty was coming to a close in 2008 after the US Senate voted their intention to deny ratification of a ATT treaty. The withdrawal of support from the top arms exporter in the world would have vastly diminished the prospects for any meaningful implementation without the support of the US. The US has come out in support of this treaty since 2009, and the renewed support by the US fundamentally changes the effectiveness that implementation of the treaty will have.The US did influenced language in the treaty to ensure that the regulations will not impede on State’s domestic gun rights and will not lower the bar of States that already practice a hig h level of arms control. Despite this accommodation made specifically for the US, the National Rifle Association (NRA), a powerful interest group within America, is against the ATT and threatens to stop ratification in the Senate on the grounds increased regulation will affect domestic gun ownership. (MacFarquhar, 2013) The UN Association (UNA) which lobbies on behalf of the UN in America, stands in strong support of the ATT and is working to combat poorly informed opinions on the nature and language contained within the ATT. (UNAUSA, 2013) Proponents on both sides of the Syrian conflict voted against or abstained from the ATT.Syria and Iran voted against the proposal while China and Russia abstained because of â€Å"the lack of an explicit prohibition on the supply of weapons to non-state actors that would, for example, restrain the ability of Syria's armed opposition from building up its stockpile. † (Lynch, 2013) Many of the Persian gulf powers which support the Syrian opp osition, such as Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Yemen abstained from the vote as well. The vague language in the ATT allows for political pressuring to frame either the Syrian opposition as terrorist groups or the Syrian regime as human rights oppressors and potentially justify a moratorium on arms exports to those organizations. This is one of the main criticisms of the ATT.India also abstained from voting for the treaty, stating that the language was â€Å"the draft treaty was â€Å"tilted† in favor of the world's leading arms exporters. † Other abstentions came from the Latin American sect of countries that generally vote against all US led initiatives in the UN. These countries include Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua. However, the treaty was met with tremendous support in the rest of Latin America and Africa, countries that have seen a tremendous amount of instability at the hands of organizations who receive their arms through illicit arms trafficking such as the drug ca rtels and the Muslim resistance movements. These countries mainly asserted that in the long run, the treaty would curb the arms sales that have fueled many conflicts. MacFarquhar, 2013) The cumulative sum of opposition and abstention for various reasons creates a reality where some of the top arms exporters have chosen not to adhere to the new treaty. This creates concerns on the ultimate effectiveness of the treaty, because a large part of the export nations the treaty was designed to add transparency and regulation to are not participants. America and the Western nations make up a tremendous percentage of global arms sales the percentage fluctuates annually, but America generally represents around half of all arms sales and the UK, France, and other European countries account for between 10 and 15 percent of global sales. Shanker, 2012) So the impact of this treaty will be felt through close to three quarters of global sales, and the hope is that as international norms strengthen, the outlier nations will feel the pressure to conform to these new international standards as well. Success of the treaty Impact analysis over the next decade will truly define the success of this treaty. In fact, ratification will not even begin until June 3, 2013. Every state will define the standards to which they want the treaty to measure up to and view success through that lens. Pertinent questions might arise over the next decade, about how the ATT shifted geopolitical power, how it will enforce arms transfers for conflicts where the consensus is split such as Syria, and whether it will have the teeth to prevent the widening of the black market which generally occurs when more stringent legal precedents are set.At the bare minimum, this treaty must succeed at stopping the supply of weapons to regions of conflict where there is an overwhelming international consensus about the extent of human rights violations being carried out under a particular regime. There will always be political conflict, but through the ATT the ultimate success will be when it succeeds in ensuring that conflict does not manifest into disproportionate violence and perhaps alter the path of least resistance to a point where it is more expedient to resolve conflict through nonviolent means. References Austin,  K. L. (2012, August 20). What Mauritius Can Teach Us About the Global Arms Trade – NYTimes. com. Retrieved  April  11, 2013, from http://atwar. blogs. nytimes. com/2012/08/20/what-mauritius-can-teach-us-about-the-global-arms-trade/? ref=viktorbout Charbonneau,  L. (2013, April 2). U. N. verwhelmingly approves global arms trade treaty| Reuters. Retrieved  April  11, 2013, from http://www. reuters. com/article/2013/04/02/us-arms-treaty-un-idUSBRE9310MN20130402 Collina,  T. (2012, October). The Wassenaar Arrangement at a Glance | Arms Control Association. Retrieved  April  11, 2013, from http://www. armscontrol. org/factsheets/wassenaar Kimball,  D. G. (2013, March 27). ‘Final' Arms Trade Treaty A Good Step Forward | Arms Control Association. Retrieved  April  11, 2013, from http://www. armscontrol. org/pressroom/Final-Arms-Trade-Treaty-A-Good-Step-Forward Kimball,  D. G. (2011, October). The Arms Trade Treaty At a Glance | Arms Control Association. Retrieved  April  11, 2013, from

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Goals Statement Essay

When I first sat down to write my educational goals statement, I thought it would be easy. I am an extremely goal oriented person, with my entire life being spent focusing on â€Å"what’s next†. So, how difficult could it be to simply write down those goals? When I began writing, however, I discovered it was going to be a little more difficult than I anticipated. I realized that it may be possible to have too many goals. My list was long and confusing with some goals very specific, and others vague. I thought to myself, how can I produce a smart goals statement out of this? So I re-evaluated my list and discovered that my goals could actually be divided into three predictable categories: immediate goals, short-term goals, and long-term goals. I decided then to choose one from each category to focus on for this report. My immediate goals were fairly general, but all related to my success as a student, so my main goal as student is to get an A in all of my online subjects, and this is a goal that I will go reaching slowly, day by day over the course of this course and in my following online courses. I feel a little intimidated when taking these online courses because my native language is Spanish and having to study in English is an extra challenge for me but I know that with effort and dedication I will get the A that I’m hoping for.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Writing Fitness Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Writing Fitness - Research Paper Example In writing, choose the active voice over the passive. As Bonnie Trenga said in her book, The Curious Case of the Misplaced Modifier: How to Solve the Mysteries of Weak Writing, the active voice is â€Å"the clearest and most direct way to present your ideas.† â€Å"In an active sentence,† she adds, â€Å"the subject performs the action, the object receives it.† Passive voice or writing, on the other hand, is â€Å"vague, wordy writing that confuses or bores readers. â€Å"It confuses them because they encounter verbs such as was and were over and over.†Ã‚  Ã‚   Writing is, above all, a form of communication. So use simple words. Do not use utilize when you can use or say masticate when you can say chew. Also, look for redundancies like ATM machine or HIV virus; the shorter the sentence the more easily understand it is. Take this for example: â€Å"What is incredible about the new processor is its speed.† This sentence has a lot of unnecessary words in it and is in the passive voice. Whereas, â€Å"The new processor’s speed is incredible,† delivers the same information as the first, but more directly and clearly. Writing is not easy. If you believe otherwise, then chances are you use a lot of clichà ©s, which nobody would like to read or say anymore. The higher the creativity of your paper, the better the chance it will get the attention you want for it. While rules in effectively writing memos do not differ from other nonfiction writing’s, here are a few more things to consider: a) Two short sentences are better than a long one. b) Use bullets — easier to see and read. c) A superior deserves the proper tone of voice even in written communication. d) Memos to the client, copy your supervisor — never the other way around. e) Initiate follow-ups. Include the details of your follow-up in the memo.   Business people have a lot less time to read than normal folk, so remember to: a) State your purpose at the very start of the letter. b) Be concise but strike the proper tone — courteous and diplomatic. c) It sells your company. So be sure to follow your company’s presentation style and that the paper is error-free.

Friday, September 27, 2019

DECISON MAKING Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

DECISON MAKING - Essay Example The routine decision making can be sub divided into different forms based on several variables that differentiate them; however, the two broad categories of decision making are programmed decisions and non-programmed decisions (O Brien, 1999). A programmed decision is, simply put, a decision that has a fine structure and occurs rather frequently, with less exceptions. Such decisions are relatively easier to make as they follow a pretty standardized procedure; a simple example of the same can be answering a customer query or solving a customer query such as password retrieval. A non-programmed decision is exact complement of the former; non-programmed decisions are more about exceptional handling rather than routine work out, for such decisions, there is less structure of any formal procedures that would resolve the issue. Accordingly, the frequency of occurrence is lesser. Purchase of fixed asset, based on frequency of occurrence can be a non-programmed procedure but since the process of purchase is well defined, it does not qualify for the same. The purchase of a house or a television would be a rather non-programmed decision. In this section, the steps for rational decision making are applied to the given case. ... The case is the need for replacement of the photocopy machine, and the decision making process is to be applied for the purchase of this new equipment (Noorul Haq, 2007). For the decision making process to be successful, it should go by a procedure so that the defined procedure can undertake the different variables needed for an appropriate decision making. Following are the simple steps that are a part of the rational decision making process with brief elaboration (Davidson, 2006), alongside the three steps, their application for the given case is also briefed: STEP I: Recognizing and defining the decision situation: It is essential for managers to recognize and define the need for the decision to be taken. There are certain underlying variables that define the need for the decision; these variables are indicators for the need of a decision. The decision situation has arisen; the photocopy machine needs to be replaced and a new equipment needs to be purchased. The need has arisen mainly due to the excess usage of the equipment in routine business operations. STEP II: Identifying alternatives: Once the need for a decision is identified, alternate decisions available should be identified. Pertinent to this case, the alternatives available are the different models of the machine (that of course have varying functionalities) and the list of pre-selected vendors who sell these machines. Another form of alternative evaluation could have been evaluation of either purchase, rent or not buy at all. However, with the requirements that it caters to, it has become essentially important to buy one as it has a lot of usage in routine operations. Going to a near by shop could have been another way out, which is ruled out due to potential lose out of confidential

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The main characteristics of Turkish banking system and its response to Dissertation

The main characteristics of Turkish banking system and its response to recent global financial crisis - Dissertation Example 62 Conclusion 64 Chapter Five 66 Conclusion 66 Table 1 68 Bibliography 71 Can Turkey’s Banking System Act as a Model To Buffer Global Financial Crises? Introduction With the burst of the US property bubble in 2008, mortgage defaults increased astronomically with irreparable harm to global banking sectors and financial institutions worldwide. A number of banks were hard hit by either non-performing loans or complicated financial assets arising under bad loans. As a consequence, actors in the market emerged as cautious which were further exacerbated by doubts about primary financial institutions’ solvency. ... Turkey also does not have an operating mortgage sector like the US has. Turkey’s Central Bank’s macroeconomic policies and measures taking by Turkey’s banks in response to the global financial crisis also contributed to the limited impact of the 2008 global financial crisis of 2008.4 This dissertation conducts a critical analysis of the main characteristics of the Turkish banking system and its response to the recent global financial crisis of 2008-2009. The main purpose is to determine whether or not, Turkey’s banking system represents a model for buffering the effects of global financial crises. This research is justified by the fact that the Turkish banking system faired relatively well during the recent global financial crisis of 2008-2009.5 At the same time, Turkey’s real economy suffered serious damages, thus making Turkey an interesting case study. Thus this dissertation seeks to determine whether or not capital restructuring of financial ins titutions which creates a hard cap against loans and mortgages suppresses economic stimulation elsewhere. Profits during the global financial crisis of the Turkish banking system were impressive compared to that of other countries including developed economies.6 While banks all over the world were collapsing, Turkey’s banks remained stable and registered profits.7 The Turkish banking system’s ability to withstand the 2008-2009 global financial crisis is generally attributed to its regulatory framework and risk protocols.8 The Turkish banking system has learned a lot with respect to responding to economic shocks and risk management following the financial crises of 2000-2001.9 As a result the Turkish banking system devised

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Critique essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Critique - Essay Example After perusing her points and arguments, one may be left scratching one’s head because the author appears out of touch. Here is the idea: Ms. Ehrenreich has painted two pictures, that of a man and a woman. In her depictions, the man is aggressive, go-getter, tough and brazen. One could hardly dispute that since men do tend to be boisterous, insensitive, loud and forceful. But there is something wrong about the way women were articulated in the article. Essentially, the writer was admonishing women to toughen up: that being tough is the most important lesson she and most women should learn from men. To rationalize this she cited many arguments that - in the process - depicted an idea of women from the author’s perspective. She first used a personal experience as an example. In a convention, she met a prestigious professor who invited her to his room. The invitation was supposed to be for the purpose of meeting of the minds or something to that effect. Ms. Ehrenreich obli ged, so she found herself with the professor in his room - in a conversation that turned out to be more than intelligent discourse. The man made several passes and sexual innuendos. From a simple and rigid perspective, the conclusion one would get would be, of course, repulsion. The author was properly disgusted, as the professor grew more and more lecherous by the minute. But there is more than what meets the eye in this situation. When a man - who is still virtually a stranger - invites a woman to his room, there is some sexual undertone to that gesture. It is going to be an intellectual discourse, so why not a more casual setting like a cafe or the bar? The room is an intimate place and the invitation should already hint something more than simply â€Å"meeting of the minds†. If Ms. Ehrenreich has helpfully provided the exact invitation, her readers might have no difficulty identifying it as a pick up line. The author accepted, so in principle she is accommodating the init ial overtures. And to think that she still stayed for 20 minutes. She must have perplexed the professor immensely. It is very difficult not to think about the author as naive and that is saying something because she stated that she is already thirty years old. She actually blushed while recounting the episode. Later in her article, Ehrenreich would claim that â€Å"we (women) tend to assume that it is our responsibility to keep everything â€Å"nice†. Unfortunately, she did not provide factual basis or empirical evidence to back this claim. But the question begs to be asked: Is it really the case? That women assume that role? It is perhaps part of her argument that women are trained to be ladylike all their lives. She defined â€Å"ladylikeness† as a persistent servility masked as â€Å"niceness†. One is hard pressed to disagree with this point. It is unfair to claim that this is the case in the American society when women are accepted across all positions and roles that are unladylike in the author’s book. There are women in the police force, in the army, in politics. There are female CEOs who most assuredly have climbed the corporate ladder not by being ladylike. It is also unfair to claim that American women are weak and that they need to toughen up. It is not uncommon for women to be aggressive these days, to be ambitious and to get and do what they want. Gender equality has been institutionalized in America. Even a sexually

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 57

Art - Essay Example The dark paintings illustrates the dark moments that were being experienced at that time. The artist tried to bring out the real situation in his society. The picture shows the status quo of the time in Honduras . This was the period that the massacre happened and so the artist has tried to depict the real situation of how the leader was comfortably sited while the nation was at war. The picture captures the hearty vitality that the painting shows. Via strong and concrete auditory and visual images and through the strong measured rhythm, it reveals that situation was worse and yet leaders were not in control of it. th picture is ironical to the real situation as the leader was supposed to to be at ease at such an alarming war situation. The picture can be described mage that focuses on a painting of warfare where a community or village participates in an aggressive manner. . The picture utilizes onomatopoeia to try and make the painting appear real. It can be deduced that the annoying sounds in the paintings can be used to help describe the violent aspect of the situation as further as endorsed by the colors. The picture was intended to show critical moments and records of events and details of the history people’s life during that time. It intends to shade more light on the painting by showing that people preserve their hope and depict determination to persevere hard conditions. That is the message that is contained in this painting as presented by the painter. Through the work, it is easy to learn and understand more about war life of that period and the people who inhabited it.. The painter had in his mind a moral slant in that lust, anger and gluttony are vividly seen in the painting. More so, the picture reveals the painters intention of bringing out the message that despite having leaders, the situation was wanting. This picture cannot understand support its themes without referring to the art work because the theme

Monday, September 23, 2019

Aesthetics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Aesthetics - Essay Example Most youths globally, have discarded their traditional cultures to associate with the American culture. Rosing states that music is an important component in the formation of cultural identity. Globalization allows for the spread of culture in the form of the language used in the music, its literature and art. The music allows some people globally to identify with the culture in a way they form their own cultural identity (99). This new culture is created globally through pooling from the different traditions exhibited in the music being presented. Globalization of music has allowed for integration of different group of people globally through the implementation and integration of the music in their lives (100). McLuhan proposes that globalization is promoted by technology. He argues that humans can reach great heights of creativity by using electronic gadgets. The use of the internet has allowed for the formation of intelligent groups of people who can achieve great heights. Thus, the internet has allowed for aesthetics from different culture to be shared easily over the internet and has provided a platform for people globally to associate with their own cultural

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Saudi Arabia's political future in the region Research Paper

Saudi Arabia's political future in the region - Research Paper Example There have been a number of uprisings which in actual fact led to the brining down of 3 Arab leaders, whereas others have been threatened and introduced to a whole new historic period of transformation (Agence France Press 56). These events painted one of the significant features of modern Arab societies which include their huge and growing youth populations. Studies have been undertaken from time to time, indicating the extent which the youth in Arab countries influence the political, social and economic future of the Arab countries (Alexander 87). This is what forms basis in this paper, Saudi Arabia’s Political future in the region. On the other hand, the events of the precedent historical developments in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Bahrain, Syria, Yemen, Morocco and even Oman highlight the advancing position of the youth in shaping the future of this region (Alexander 96). It is therefore evident that Saudi Arabia is facing the Arab Awakening which is strong enough to shift the regions political central force from an old generation of dictators to a new and young generation of democratic leaders. And without warning, the youth of Saudi Arabia are in the fore front more than willing to shape and change the political future of their own country. It is evident that the young people and the entire population of old people in Saudi express a lot of patriotism for King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz for the reason that he is largely perceived as a religious, compassionately and a person who has good interests for the people of Saudi at heart (Schanzer 111). A large number of King Abdulaziz subjects show admiration to his reformist standpoint for instance in various fields like education and the rights of women. Whereas the good regards may not go further than to everybody in the administrative royal family, the political framework of Saudi obtains prevalent and well known authority among Saudis which includes the youth. In March 2011, a call on social media for Saudiâ⠂¬â„¢s â€Å"Day of Rage† was evident. As a matter of fact, this occurred several weeks subsequent to the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak had been thrown out and anxiety in the region was becoming apparent (Alexander 96). However, on the day that the rage was to take center stage, journalists in Riyadh were able to capture only one protestor in the town of five million people. In the real sense there are a number of reasons behind this evident change of mind or lack of interest in the rage anymore. Firstly, there was an intensive police presence which entailed use of helicopters in the Riyadh streets that particular day. Secondly, the government is known to deal severely with those who resist its injunctions or go against/criticize its rules further subjecting them to illogical arrest and long-serving detention (Lynch 43). For instance the â€Å"Day of Rage’s single protester, a forty year old teacher Khalid Al Johani was put to detention moments subsequent to his pu blic declaration to journalists that Saudi Arabia is a â€Å"police state†. Several months soon after, Al Johani was jailed with no charges 4 months (Lynch 43). On the other hand a cluster of a dozen reformist and activists in Jeddah who were deliberating on coming up with a political party, that is prohibited in the Kingdom, were lately sentenced to long serving prison terms of up to thirty years subsequent to undisclosed trial charges,

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The structure of the business Essay Example for Free

The structure of the business Essay As you can see from the organisational chart above, Venetian Ices LTD is a respectful size. As from the diagram above it is obvious that there is a large span of control and a reasonable chain of command, this means that communication is very accurate as there is less levels for messages to pass through before the message finally reaches the desired person. Managers are also at an advantage as they are less remote from the lower level of hierarchy, these managers as a result are more in touch with subordinates as there are less managers. Also as there is a small chain of command and a large span of control, managers have more responsibilities, this may at first seem as a disadvantage but after consideration, it is obvious that under the circumstances more delegation will occur meaning subordinates will have more to do. As a result of this employees will come more motivated as there is more of a responsibility handed to them. However a foremost disadvantage is that as managers have a wider range of control, then they may lose control of what their many subordinates are doing. In most businesses there are 4 main functions- Marketing, Production, Finance and Personnel. The production function which I am concerned with throughout this course work, is in charge of ordering the raw materials in which the business produces its product, this is vital as with-out the raw materials then the business would not be able to process the product or in other words, without the raw material Venetian Ices LTD would not be able to produce their ice cream and therefore will be unable to make a profit. The department is also in charge of designing the product along side the marketing section, the two sections try to work together to provide the best product available. This section of production also works together with the finance department in case of damaged machinery of any new material the business has to purchase, if there are any problems then the production manager would provide listings of new investments needed. The production department also have to work within laws of production, in order to make sure that when they produce their product they are abiding different laws which surround the business. This is an aspect of my course work which I have to research into, as I have to reveal to the Venetian Ices LTD directors which laws they have to abide by to produce ice cream. There are three main methods of production, job production, batch production and flow production. Job production is where products are made specifically to order, for example a tailor would make a new suit to match the consumer needs. In this method each order is different, and may or may not be repeated in the same way. Other examples specialist machinery manufacturers who would manufacture a machine for another business to meet particular specification. In this method the costumer is allowed to choose the exact requirements they wish to acquire, which is a distinct advantage. Also workers will proceed to become more motivated, as they get more job satisfaction because employees are not repeating there job over and over again, but instead are doing new requirements every time a new order occurs. However skilled labour is often needed, as employees have to be able to meet incalculable costumer requirements. This is not a method used by Venetian Ices LTD as they make many ice cream products for different supermarkets. One product for each market would not recoup enough profit nor meet supply and demand. Another production method is batch production, this is where similar products are made in blocks or batches. A certain number of another product is made, then another product is made and so on. Examples include when a baker makes one type of bread and then when that order is completed another design of bread is commences. Another example is that when a house design is made acceptable in a certain development area, that design is used several times and after that design is refined with, a new batch of houses is designed. This design is particularly useful as design transformations are easy to complete and progress. Furthermore motivation towards employees is also taken into account as they are not constantly completing the same procedure, but however there is more a variety in job production. For small businesses, this method would bring them to a disadvantage as raw material stock would need to be stored and warehouse space can often consume profits. This method may be used by Venetian Ices LTD in order to see if a new flavour or design fits in well with costumer needs and wants. By only producing a few amounts of their new products they will be able to test their product on the market without risking high values of cash. The last production method is the most continuous, the method is called Flow production. This method is often referred as mass production due to the heavy quantity of products being produced. The basic ingredients of the product are put together at separate levels as the pass different sectors of a production line. I.e. as each component moves along the production belt, another piece is added to the overall product. Large product quantities are made within this method and as a result of purchasing economies the business may buy materials below the average price of that certain material. By taking advantage of purchasing economies, the business can buy in bulk fore a much lower price, by buying each unit at a cheaper price it gives the business a greater benefit against smaller companies who may not buy in the same bulk amounts, as a result it enables the business to sell its product at a much less price, making their product more favourable in the eyes of the public. However research suggest that workers are hard to motivate under these circumstances, for the work is often boring and then same day in and day out. Another essential disadvantage is that high amounts of capital is needed to set up flow production machinery, which may discourage the directors of a business to venture in to this production method. The production function has to also choose the location of manufacturing for it is vital that the right selection of location is chosen. Shown below is a diagram of factors affecting the choice of location: Probably one of the most complicated sections is the finance department that is managed by John Hardy. This function has to be in charge of controlling financial transactions within all the business. It controls the transaction by budgeting and analysing a series of accounts, the analysation occurs is through many different accounts such as cash flow forecast, profit and loss accounts etc This function is important in the sale of a new product as without tracing the sales of a new product then there would be no record of increases or decreases, resulting in a risk of a business losing profit. Probably an extremely important aspect of this function is through the finance department making budgets in which the company has to cope with. It is vital that the company deals within a budget as without a budget, the company may over spend and come drowned in dept. This may leave the future of the company in doubt. The final section is the personnel department, this department deals with the employees, meaning it controls interviews with new employees, selecting staff for promotion, discipline within the company and who will receive bonuses for working well. As well as these responsibilities the function has the more important job of making sure the company workers are well motivated. They do this in many ways, a few of which are giving job perks company car, holidays, special bonuses and personnel problems in which the employees have to deal with. If however a vacancy occurs within a business, then it is the personnel departments responsibility to attract and recruit the most suitable and most qualified staff. If the recruitment process is not completed to the highest degree, then the company could be face with members of staff who are in capable of doing the job that they were employed to do. Also the personnel department is faced with the difficult job of the dismissal and redundancy making of staff. The reason why some members of staff may be faced with dismissal maybe because the company feel that that certain member of staff is not performing to the complete standards that they wished that member would work at. Or a member may be of a certain old age, where the company feel that that staff member is coming to an end of their career. Management responsibilities in different departments Human resources department *Forecasting staff needs for the business * Preparing job descriptions and job specifications * Planning staff training courses * Interviewing and selecting staff * Keeping staff records * Disciplining staff * Recruiting staff * Preparing job descriptions and job specifications * Planning staff training courses * Interviewing and selecting staff * Keeping staff records *Disciplining staff Marketing department * Market research * Planning new products * Keeping and extracting sales records * Deciding upon the best marketing mix strategy Finance department * Recording all financial transactions * Collecting and presenting financial data * Analysing the profitability of new investment projects * Keeping cashflow control * Preparing budgets for the business Production department * Ordering stock and materials * Developing and designing new products * Locating buildings in the most cost effective areas * Designing on production methods * Controlling production to ensure high levels of efficiency * Maintaining machinery * Making sure quality of products is of standard

Friday, September 20, 2019

The role of technology in business success

The role of technology in business success Technologys recent evolution has created several opportunities for organizations to improve their performance and achieve their goals. Organizations have been trying to understand how technology will add value to their operations and how they can apply it to their advantage. This essay focuses on the importance of technology, as well as on challenges faced in managing technology and, most significantly, in aligning it with business strategy and leading the organization to business success. INTRODUCTION In recent decades, evolving technology has played a crucial role to business success and in fact, sometimes, even in business survival; it has been necessary for organizations to incorporate technology, in order to survive in an ever-changing environment and to increase their competitiveness (Pan et al, 2008). According to Sauer and Wilcocks (2003), technology is the most important influence in the evolution of the organization of the future. But why is technology important and what actions do the organizations have to take in order to improve their performance and to achieve their goals? IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY TO BUSINESS SUCCESS In a global market where information flows rapidly, it is strategically significant to manage technology that is able to transform products and services, operations and processes, companies and even competition (Porter and Millar, 2001). As Floyd (1997) argues, technology is important for two reasons; first, it is important to the success of every business activity, as a company is not able to deal with competition without use of technology. Secondly, it is technology-driven innovation that can lead an organization to long-term growth. In terms of business activities, organizations can benefit from technology by differentiating their products and services, reducing their operating costs, taking advantage of new opportunities and supporting change processes. As for technology assisted innovation, it seems that those organizations that do invest in technology and become innovative increase their market shares, financial figures and overall competitiveness. Having identified the importance of technology, managers should take actions of managing technology and adding value to their organizations. In this sense, contemporary organizations, and especially large corporations, invest huge capitals on the implementation of technology over the last decades, for example CRM and ERP systems. Information technology in most business areas facilitates the control of corporate activities, improves operations and helps in gaining the competitive advantage (Lollar et al, 2010). In industries, technology is a key component in order to meet market needs and customers expectations. In general, apart from achieving their goals, all the organizations need to focus on their customers needs. Leading companies in the market take initiatives by using technology to improve their operations, for example marketing and sales, as traditional approaches to these functions seem to be ineffective. As an example, the increasing power of the Internet (including social networking) has forced many companies to change their strategies with the aim of turning this power to their advantage (Bernoff and Lee, 2008). CHALLENGES IN MANAGING TECHNOLOGY Implementing technology in a complex business environment is challenging and requires a number of management tools and processes in order to incorporate changes that will occur (Phaal et al, 2005). Introducing a new technology should be combined with a strategic plan which involves a number of factors and challenges, as Haywood (1990) suggests; first, top management commitment to the technological plans is crucial. Secondly, the identification of appropriate technology and the selection of its source are two further challenged for organizations. Moreover, people within the company should be able to take advantage of new technology and become engaged with the aim of increasing value. Organizations should be organized and structured in a way that allows technological change and advancement. Last but not least, companies should be able to benefit from this change in order to become more competitive and achieve their short and long-term goals. The most significant of the aspects mentioned above is that technology initiatives should align with the overall business strategy; organizations should use technology according to business imperatives instead of technical criteria (Bensaou and Earl, 1998). There are multiple challenges in selecting and applying the most appropriate technology that will improve operational performance and utilize resources, people and their knowledge more efficiently. As Bensaou and Earl comment, there are several examples of organizations that either discovered that their technology did not support their business strategies or selected complex technological solutions, instead of simple ones that could be more effective. To conclude, it is necessary to take all the aspects of technology into account, so as to implement it in ways that will add value to the business. Managers who are responsible for technology should take initiatives and make the right choices, which reflect the organizations strategy and can lead to business success. ZARA CASE STUDY: LESS IS MORE Zara is one of the largest international fashion companies and part of one of the worlds largest distribution groups, Inditex. Zaras approach to technology is based on the principle of low IT investment that can deliver maximum value to the company. Despite being an information-intensive business with dynamic global operations and millions of customers, there is remarkably little information technology (MacAfee, 2004). Zara focuses on the human factor instead of technology, allowing people to make all the decisions; there are no CRM systems, no scheduling software and no ERP platforms involved in their operations; there are no intranets or online connections among stores, production units, distribution centers and the headquarters; computers are used in a limited and standardized manner. Despite all these facts, Zara has achieved better performance and higher profits than its competitors, thanks to its targeted technology strategy and alignment of the limited implemented technology w ith the companys flexible business plan. CONCLUSION Technology is one of the most crucial factors for business success. However, it is not the only factor; it should be an enabler for the organizations strategic plan. As a result, there is a need to find a balance between technology and business strategy, with the aim of addressing the organizations needs and achieving business goals.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Charlotte’s Web, Goblin Market, and The Secret Garden :: Goblin Market

Charlotte’s Web, Goblin Market, and The Secret Garden Instructor’s comment: This student’s essay performs the admirable trick of being both intensely personal and intelligently literary. While using children’s literature to reflect on what she lost in growing up, she shows in the grace of her language that she has gained something as well: an intelligent understanding of what in childhood is worth reclaiming. We all should make the effort to find our inner child Certain elements in children’s literature make me feel nostalgic for the past when I lived a more carefree and perhaps careless lifestyle with my eyes and ears wide open. Now, a college student and adult struggling to juggle school, work, and future career planning, I often forget the simple things that brought me pleasure when I was a child. The stresses I have encountered while growing older—taking on added responsibilities and accumulating prejudices—have clouded my childlike, innocent, and fun view of life. This childishness, which was reawakened by reading Charlotte’s Web,â€Å"Goblin Market,† and The Secret Garden ,is something I’d like to bring to life again. I miss it, and I’m tired of repressing it just so I can appear to be a mature adult. There are some characteristics in me that were rooted in childhood and still survive to express themselves today, like my love for animals. But these are few. The majority of things I learn ed, believed, and valued as a child have escaped me and perhaps lie dormant somewhere in my subconscious. My sense of beauty and healing power in nature has diminished since I moved away from my rural childhood home, as well as my relationships with my sisters, who were more easy to get along with when I was young. I regret losing these parts of me with age, and after reading these books I wish more than ever to bring them back, because they did form who I was as a child—and everything stems from childhood. This is when I was my real self, naive at heart and innocent at play. As a child I related to Charlotte’s Web and I still do. One thing that has always concerned me is the beauty, treatment, and protection of animals. When asked why I’m a vegetarian, the words seem to flow almost from instinct: â€Å"Because I don’t believe in killing animals for our pleasure.† Being a vegetarian is particularly hard, especially when the menus in most restaurants are 90% meat. Charlotte’s Web, Goblin Market, and The Secret Garden :: Goblin Market Charlotte’s Web, Goblin Market, and The Secret Garden Instructor’s comment: This student’s essay performs the admirable trick of being both intensely personal and intelligently literary. While using children’s literature to reflect on what she lost in growing up, she shows in the grace of her language that she has gained something as well: an intelligent understanding of what in childhood is worth reclaiming. We all should make the effort to find our inner child Certain elements in children’s literature make me feel nostalgic for the past when I lived a more carefree and perhaps careless lifestyle with my eyes and ears wide open. Now, a college student and adult struggling to juggle school, work, and future career planning, I often forget the simple things that brought me pleasure when I was a child. The stresses I have encountered while growing older—taking on added responsibilities and accumulating prejudices—have clouded my childlike, innocent, and fun view of life. This childishness, which was reawakened by reading Charlotte’s Web,â€Å"Goblin Market,† and The Secret Garden ,is something I’d like to bring to life again. I miss it, and I’m tired of repressing it just so I can appear to be a mature adult. There are some characteristics in me that were rooted in childhood and still survive to express themselves today, like my love for animals. But these are few. The majority of things I learn ed, believed, and valued as a child have escaped me and perhaps lie dormant somewhere in my subconscious. My sense of beauty and healing power in nature has diminished since I moved away from my rural childhood home, as well as my relationships with my sisters, who were more easy to get along with when I was young. I regret losing these parts of me with age, and after reading these books I wish more than ever to bring them back, because they did form who I was as a child—and everything stems from childhood. This is when I was my real self, naive at heart and innocent at play. As a child I related to Charlotte’s Web and I still do. One thing that has always concerned me is the beauty, treatment, and protection of animals. When asked why I’m a vegetarian, the words seem to flow almost from instinct: â€Å"Because I don’t believe in killing animals for our pleasure.† Being a vegetarian is particularly hard, especially when the menus in most restaurants are 90% meat.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Kent State Massacre :: essays research papers

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were authored in secret by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in response to the repressive Alien and Sedition Acts passed in 1798. In the opinion of Jefferson and Madison, the Acts were unjust. They also represented a major victory for the Federalists. By writing the Resolutions, Jefferson and Madison spearheaded the protests of those against the Alien and Sedition Acts and those in support of stronger states’ rights. Although the Resolutions were successful in the two originating states, they did not have much success in the other states. Still, the new ideas presented in the Resolutions were almost revolutionary. Although the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and 1799 were not very successful, they were important because they provided necessary arguments for the supporters of greater states’ rights against the proponents of a stronger central government.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Alien and Sedition Acts played major roles in the coming about of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. Passed in early 1798, the Acts laid down a number of harsh restrictions on foreigners. The Alien Act stretched the minimum years for eligibility for naturalization from five years to fourteen years. It also gave the President the power to expel any alien from the country. The Sedition Act was even harsher; it gave the government the right to arrest anyone accused of seditious activities. The Sedition Act thus cracked down on many Jeffersonian newspapers which criticized the government. Of course, Jefferson criticized these Acts; he even called them â€Å"worthy of the 8th and 9th century† (2 / p.174). With these laws the Federalists were thought to be stifling the power of the Jeffersonians.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Through the Alien and Sedition Acts, those in support of a stronger federal government achieved a major victory. The Acts gave new powers which were not dictated in the Constitution to both the executive and legislative branches. The Federalists were able to pass these acts with their logic based upon loose translations of the Constitution, especially the â€Å"elastic clause.† In peacetime, these Acts would not have had a chance in being passed, but the undeclared war with France had riled up Congress enough to accept these loose translations.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The opponents of the Alien and Sedition Acts were led by Jefferson and Madison; in response to the Acts the Republicans launched an attack on what they believed were breaches of the Constitution. The attack on the Alien and Sedition Acts was based upon the â€Å"strict construction theory† of the Republicans.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Intellectual Property Piracy

Intellectual Intellectual property is under attack by pirates. These pirates are not wearing an eye patch or sporting a peg leg, they are anybody and everybody who are selling or copying software for personal or business use. When it comes to software and online piracy, in certain countries, it is like the Wild West, there are laws that are very cut and dry but it seems like nobody follows them. On the other hand there are certain countries where it almost seems like anything goes with a lack of government regulation.The United States has very strict laws about copyright infringement. If a person is found guilty of copyright infringement in the US, it is considered a felony charge which carries a heavy fine as well as possible jail time. In December 2011, the Office of the US Trade Representative (USTR) released a list of â€Å"notorious markets,† or markets that â€Å"typify the problem of marketplaces that deal in goods and services that infringe on IPR and help to sustain global piracy and counterfeiting,† according to a USTR press release(China Urges US, 2012).Along with strict enforcement of anti-piracy laws, countries of North America, Western Europe and Australia tend to follow the Rule of Law in which society validates laws and codes. There are many associations emerging to fight technology piracy to ensure intellectual property rights. Such organization such as WTO (World Trade Organization), WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization), and the WCT (World Copyright Treaty) have been created to police the piracy of intellectual property. With these organizations, intellectual piracy had seen a decline for a short amount of time.In a study in 2009, it was found that of all software found in developed countries, 80% of the software was legitimately purchased. On the other hand, it was also found that in emerging countries, about 60% of software was found to be pirated. Those emerging countries account for 45% of the global hardware marke t while they only account for less they 20% of legitimate software. Emerging countries are actually putting out more computers then legal software to put on the computers. In 2009 alone, the US lost 50 billion dollars to software piracy. It is a daunting task to police these intellectual thieves.When looking at the piracy of intellectual property globally, it seems to be a complicated task at hand to police. There are many countries that are trying to get a grasp on the problem at hand. Statistically the United States are leading the way with only 21% of its software was pirated in a 2008 report. In January 2012, the US passed the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) in the U. S. House and the Senate's Protect Intellectual Property Act (PIPA ) which would strengthen penalties for pirating movies, music, merchandise and books, have pitted corporate interests against each other and against free-speech advocates(Mitchell, 2012).Though one out of five computers in the US had illegal software, which is better than the 95% of software pirated in the country of Georgia. Organizations such as the WTO are helping on the forefront of against piracy by creating treaties amongst countries to in order to reduce the level of theft of IPR’s. The countries that seem to be adhering to this these treaties tend to have a higher level of individualism as well as a stronger grasp of the rule of law in compared to their counterparts. Other ways of controlling the piracy plague have been put into place.Technological security system like adding passwords and login, putting protection on the purchased software that would make it incapable of copying or burning are progressing to slow down the taking of intellectual property. Will this stop the problem completely? Most likely not, but it provides a promising future for IPR’s. In undeveloped countries across the world, piracy is running rampant with out much government enforcement. In China, it is legal to have 499 pirated DVDs i n a person’s possession. If caught with more, it’s only a fine that would be about the same as a parking ticket.With countries such as China India or Russia that have a low sense of individualism, IPR is not a pressing matter. Those are some of the greatest populated countries of the world and the problem spreads even further then them. Without stricter enforcement in such countries, there is no end to how far piracy of software will go. In Western Europe, there is the alarming fact that more computer hardware is being produced then software is being sold. These emerging countries are taking hold of counterfeiting and sophisticating the way of doing business illegally.With the internet and person to person sharing, it is getting easier and more efficient to sell and trade pirated software. Piracy is inevitable. When the people of the world have no ethical problem with breaking IPR’s, there will be no end to the problem. The majority of the people that are pirati ng do not believe they are even breaking any laws. As much as we try to control, regulate and enforce piracy, there will always be someone looking for a new way of finding an end to a means. Piracy has been compared to that of illegal drug trafficking, it is an endless war that seems to have no end in site.If your take the cultures in where the heaviest of piracy of software is taking place, it is those that are a collective society, with little regard for those IPRs of individuals. The only way that piracy will end is if the world changes and conforms to having principles that respect these creative individuals and their governments take initiative and lead the way in solving this problem. This unfortunately, may never happen, and piracy will continue to be a problem that plagues the business world.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Figures of Speech

FIGURE OF SPEECH : A mode of expression in which words are used out of their literal meaning or out of their ordinary use in order to add beauty or emotional intensity or to transfer the poet's sense impressions by comparing or identifying one thing with another that has a meaning familiar to the reader. Some important figures of speech are: simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole and symbol. Adjunction: Adjunction refers to a clause or a phrase, usually a verb, that is added at the beginning of a sentence. Here are a few examples of adjunction; Sings the bird as we walk on by. Good it is that fights the master with his dark lord, Allegory: This figure of speech is an extended metaphor where the characters or actions in a literary work have a more imaginative meaning. The examples of allegory are; I feel like a dog today. I rolled out of my basket and munched on some biscuit-like cereal. Scratching as I got on the train, I sniffed a passing female. Aruooo!! Down boy! – Animal Farm, George Orwell By this I perceive thou art one of my subjects; for all that country is mine, and I am the Prince and God of it. How is it then that thou hast run away from thy King? The Pilgrim's Progress, John Bunyan Alliteration: A repetition of particular consonant sound in the beginning of each word in close succession. Though alliteration is mainly consonant sounds, sometimes vowel sounds are also repeated. This figure of speech is mainly used in poetry. A few examples of alliteration: I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet. – Acquainted with the Night , Robert Frost Those tidal thoroughbreds that tango through the turquoise tide. – Dancing Dolphins, Paul McCann Allusion: An allusion is an indirect or brief reference to a person, place or thing in a literary work. A few illustrations of allusion – I doubt if Phaethon feared more – that time he dropped the sun-reins of his father's chariot and burned the streak of sky we see today – or if poor Icarus did – feeling his sides unfeathering as the wax began to melt, his father shouting: â€Å"Wrong, your course is wrong – Inferno, Dante This responsibility is too much for me. I feel as though I have an albatross around my neck. – The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Samuel Taylor Coleridge Antithesis: An antithesis is a figure of speech where there is a juxtaposition of two contrasting ideas in a balanced clause or sentence. Some illustrations of antithesis: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way. – A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens If, as our dreaming Platonists report, There could be spirits of a middle sort, Too black for heav'n, and yet too white for hell, Who just dropp'd halfway down, nor lower fell. – The Hind and the Panther, John Dryden Apostrophe: In this figure of speech, a non existent or absent person is addressed. In literary pieces, this figure of speech usually starts with an exclamation ‘O'. Examples of apostrophe are: O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo? – Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth, / That I am meek and gentle with these butchers! / Thou art the ruins of the noblest man / That ever lived in the tide of times. Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare. Climax: In climax, the words or clauses are arranged in ascending order of importance. These phrases have a similar theme and arranged in increasing order according to the impact they create on the reader. A few illustrations; Love creates happiness, happiness creates joy, joy creates enlightenment. We'll collect pennies in tens, hundreds and millions! P ower starts small, becomes significant then becomes unstoppable. Euphemism: A figure of speech where an offensive or rude word is substituted by a polite and gentle word. The technique is to use a neutral language so as not to sound offensive to the receiver. Like for instance: Differently abled instead of disabled. Put to sleep instead of euthanasia Hyperbole: It is used while exaggerating something. This figure of speech is mainly used in several jokes or as a way of insult. It is to dramatize a normal situation or to make it look worse. A few hyperbole examples: The whole world was staring at me. It is going to take a zillion years to get through medical school. My backpack weighs a ton. Irony: Irony is used to convey the opposite meaning of a word. It is usually used in sarcasm or in humor. It is also used to convey an ugly truth in a subtle manner. Some examples of irony are: â€Å"Water, water, everywhere, And all the boards did shrink; Water, water, everywhere, Nor any drop to drink. † (Situational Irony) – The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, S. T. Coleridge The boy is so intelligent that he failed in all the subjects. (Verbal Irony) Metaphor: Metaphor is used for the purpose of comparison with a thing which is not applicable to it literally. It is an indirect comparison of two unrelated things. Some examples of metaphors include: He was a lion in the battlefield. He is the apple of my eye. Metonymy: In metonymy, the name of one thing is replaced with something that is closely related to it. In common terms, it is also known as misnomer or transmutation. Here are some metonymy examples: The suits on Wall Street walked off with most of our savings. (Suits referring to bankers). The White House asked the television networks for air time on Monday night. (Here air time refers to broadcasting). Onomatopoeia: This figure of speech imitates the sounds produced by the objects or actions. Mentioned below are some examples of onomatopoeia: The buzzing of bees. The whirring of the washing machine. Oxymoron: Using a contradictory term to define a situation, object or event is oxymoron. Some oxymoron examples are: Clearly misunderstood Exact estimation Personification: Associating an inanimate object to human quality. A few personification examples are: The haughty lion surveyed his realm. My car was happy to be washed. Simile: Simile is a figure of speech where two essentially unlike things are compared with each other, using ‘as', ‘than' or ‘like'. A few simile examples are given below: O my love is like a red, red rose. Life is like an onion: You peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep. Synecdoche: It is a part of speech similar to metonymy, where a part of a particular object is used to refer to the whole thing. Synechdoche examples are: The city posted a sign, where ‘the city' refers to the government. The gray beard refers to an old man.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Solution of Chapter 8 Operations Mangement by Jay Heizer

Service location decisions tend to focus on the revenue function, whereas manufacturing/industrial location decisions tend to focus on costs. The service sector uses techniques such as: Correlation analysis Traffic counts Demographic analysis Purchasing power analysis The industrial decision uses: Transportation method Factor-weighting approach Break-even analysis Crossover charts 8. Factors to consider when choosing a country: Exchange rates Government stability Communications systems within the country and to the home office Wage rates Productivity Transportation costsLanguage Tariffs Taxes Attitude towards foreign investors/incentives Legal system Ethical standards Cultural issues Supplies availability Market locations 9. Factors to consider in a region/community decision: Corporate desires Attractiveness of region Labor issue Utilities Environmental regulations Incentives Proximity to raw materials/customers Land/construction costs 10. Site location factors: Size and cost Transpo rtation systems Zoning Proximity of services/supplies needed Environmental impact END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS 8. 1(a)Six laborers each making $3 per day can produce 40 units. b)Eight laborers each making $2. 50 per day, can produce 45 units. (c)Two laborers, each making $64 per day, can make 100 units.China is most economical, assuming transportation costs are not included. 8. 2Malaysia China Montana China is most favorable. 8. 6Atlanta Charlotte Charlotte is better. 8. 7| | Suburb B has the highest rating, but weights should be examined using sensitivity analysis, as the final ratings are all close. 8. 8| | Location| | | Present Location| Newbury| Hyde Park| | Factor| | Wgt| | | Wgt| | | Wgt| | | 1| 40| 0. 30| 12| 60| 0. 30| 18. 00| 50| 0. 0| 15. 0| | 2| 20| 0. 15| 3| 20| 0. 15| 3. 00| 80| 0. 15| 12. 0| | 3| 30| 0. 20| 6| 60| 0. 20| 12. 00| 50| 0. 20| 10. 0| | 4| 80| 0. 35| 28| 50| 0. 35| 17. 50| 50| 0. 35| 17. 5| | | Total Points| 49| Total Points| 50. 50| Total Points| 54. 5| It appe ars that Hyde Park represents the best alternative. 8. 9(a)Chicago = 16 + 6 + 7 + 4 = 33 Milwaukee = 10 + 13. 5 + 6 + 3 = 32. 5 Madison = 12 + 12 + 4 + 2. 5 = 30. 5 Detroit = 14 + 6 + 7 + 4. 5 = 31. 5 All four are quite close, with Chicago and Milwaukee almost tied.Chicago has the largest rating, with a 33. b)With a cutoff of 5, Chicago is unacceptable because it scores only 4 on the second factor. Only Milwaukee has scores of 5 or higher on all factors. 8. 10| Location A| | Factor| Weight| Rating| Weighted Score| | 1| 5| 100| 500| | 2| 3| 80| 240| | 3| 4| 30| 120| | 4| 2| 10| 20| | 5| 2| 90| 180| | 6| 3| 50| 150| | Total weighted score:| 1210| | Location B | | Factor| Weight| Rating| Weighted Score| | 1| 5| 80| 400| | 2| 3| 70| 210| | 3| 4| 60| 240| | 4| 2| 80| 160| | 5| 2| 60| 120| | 6| 3| 60| 180| | Total weighted score: | 1310| | Location C | Factor| Weight| Rating| Weighted Score| | 1| 5| 80| 400| | 2| 3| 100| 300| | 3| 4| 70| 280| | 4| 2| 60| 120| | 5| 2| 80| 160| | 6| 3| 90| 270| | Total weighted score:| 1530|Based on the total weighted scores, Location C should be recommended. Note that raw weights were used in computing these weighted scores (we just multiplied â€Å"weight† times â€Å"rating†). Relative weights could have been used instead by taking each factor weight and dividing by the sum of the weights (i. e. , 19). Then the weight for factor 1 would have been . Location C would still have been selected. . 11| | Site 3 has the highest rating factor, 86. 65, and should be selected. 8. 12(a)The following figure indicates the volume range for which each site is optimal. Site 1 is optimal for production less than or equal to 125 units. Site 2 is optimal for production between 125 and 233 units. Site 3 is optimal for production above 233 units. (b)For 200 units, site 2 is optimal. 8. 13| (a)| | (b)For 5,000 units, Perth is the better option. 8. 14| | V–A: A–B: B–C: 8. 15| (a)| | The total cost equations are: (b)Denv er is preferable over the range from 0–3,570 units.Burlington is lowest cost at any volume exceeding 3,570, but less than 25,000 units. Atlanta is never lowest in cost. Cleveland becomes the best site only when volume exceeds 25,000 units per year. (c)At a volume of 5,000 units, Burlington is the least-cost site. 8. 16| | The proposed new hub should be near (5. 15, 7. 31). 8. 17| | | City| Map Coordinates| Shipping Load| | A| 2, 1| 20| | B| 2, 13| 10| | C| 4, 17| 5| | D| 7, 7| 20| | E| 8, 18| 15| | F| 12, 16| 10| | G| 17, 4  | 20| | H| 18, 18| 20| | | | 120| 8. 19| | The proposed new facility should be near (7. 97, 6. 69).

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Explore Joe Gargery’s role in Great Expectations Essay

In Great Expectations, Joe acts as a father figure to Pip, when he is in fact his brother-in-law, as Joe married Pip’s sister, Mrs Joe Gargery. We are introduced to Joe as a â€Å"mild, good-natured, sweet-tempered, easy-going, foolish, dear fellow†. Pip describes him as a kind and gentle man, making the reader immediately like him. â€Å"Good-natured† and â€Å"sweet-tempered† give Joe an endearing quality, so the reader is drawn to him. However, â€Å"foolish† introduces a potentially negative side to his character, like he is stupid, although this too could be considered endearing. Perhaps Dickens does this so that we can understand Joe’s actions better, or at least don’t view him too negatively when he can’t protect Pip from Mrs Joe. In contrast to his gentle personality, he is a blacksmith, and therefore a strong man. Pip thinks of him â€Å"like the steam-hammer, that can crush a man or pat an egg shell†. He is likening Joe to a machine in the forge, giving Joe a sense of power. Although, â€Å"crush† is quite a violent word, suggesting Joe to be violent, which he definitely is not. Perhaps Dickens included this detail to make us respect Joe, which is important for later on in the novel, so we don’t just view him as a â€Å"sweet-tempered† man. But there is a sense of this good natured man in the word â€Å"pat†, it could potentially have paternal connotations. Perhaps this links to the image of the egg shell as well, as it is a fragile protector of life. Furthermore Joe could almost be seen as the protector of Pip’s life, as he saves him several times. Also egg shells can be strong, but have weak sides if they are put under stress, just like Joe has a weak side  œ he can’t protect Joe from Mrs Joe Gargery. As well as this, there is the idea that Joe is in control, in the words â€Å"can† and â€Å"or†, he can choose which side of himself to be, strong or gentle. This is a very adult concept, but Joe can sometimes be very childlike. Joe can’t deal with the idea of death, despite being a strong blacksmith. When Pip asks Joe if Miss Havisham died, he eventually replies â€Å"she ain’t living†. This is a very backward way of saying it, a way we don’t normally use, showing Joe’s childish innocence. He avoids the subject of death again, when Pip asks him if he had heard of Magwitch’s death. Even though Joe never knew him personally, he avoids saying the words, instead he says he heard â€Å"something or another in a general way in that direction†. The vagueness of this statement is almost humorous, he can’t even just say â€Å"yes†. Joe is unable to confirm a person’s death, he just brushes over the subject, not fully acknowledging or possibly understanding it, like a child would. Another way Dickens portrays this childishness is through making Joe illiterate. Pip writes him a letter, and all he can read is his name: â€Å"Why, here’s three Js, and three Os, and three J-O, Joes, in it, Pip!† The exclamation mark at the end implies he is excited and proud that he has managed to read, and that he is wanting Pip to recognise his achievement, like a child would want their father too. This childishness makes Joe a lovable character, the reader wants to see him do well. Perhaps it also makes Pip’s behaviour towards him seem worse, from the reader’s perspective, as Joe is such an innocent character. Whilst Joe may not have great knowledge or academic skills, he possesses something most of the other characters don’t have, self-knowledge, he recognises he is illiterate and ‘stupid’. He tells Pip on two separate occasions that he is â€Å"most awful dull†. He is accepting of himself, he knows he is not the cleverest, in fact â€Å"awful† suggests that he thinks he is very stupid. Moreover, â€Å"dull† could imply many things, not only that he is stupid, but also that he isn’t sharp. Perhaps this is a reference to him being a black smith, that he is like one of his hammers, only good for physically things, he’s not sharp witted or clever. â€Å"Dull† could also intimate that he thinks he is boring, perhaps why he struggles to talk to, or be in the presence of people in a higher class to himself, because he considers himself boring and unworthy. But this ‘dullness’ does not stop him from being wise. Throughout the novel, Joe gives Pip many pieces of advice, for example â€Å"if you can’t get to be oncommon through going straight, you’ll never get to do it through going crooked†. Joe, even though he is perhaps the most uneducated character (shown in the wording of the sentence) he can sometimes be the most wise and honourable. Because of this he acts as a hidden role model for Pip. Not only is he honourable and wise, he understands his place: â€Å"I am wrong out of the forge† he tells Pip at their awkward reunion. Dickens suggests (through Joe) that people should stay in their class, and not aspire or try to move up; he argues for social immobility. Joe tells Pip that if he ever came back to the forge he’d â€Å"see Joe the blacksmith, there, at the old anvil, in the old burnt apron, sticking to the old work.† Joe labels himself â€Å"the blacksmith† implying that he believes it is all he is good at. The repetition of â€Å"old† makes him seem experienced, as he has been doing it a long time. There is also the idea that he clings or latches onto his work, in the word â€Å"sticking†, he fixes himself onto it so much that it has become how he defines himself. The fact that he feels himself â€Å"wrong† when not in the forge could be the reason why he can’t talk to Miss Havisham: â€Å"Joe†¦persisted in addressing me.† It is like he cannot deal with the formality of he occasion, as he feels he doesn’t belong there. Dickens humiliates Joe here, presenting him as a shy and awkward character, making the reader sympathise with him. This is another negative quality, helping to balance out the character of Joe. Joe also finds it difficult to deal with Pip when he is a ‘gentleman’. When Pip is ill, and needing Joe’s help, Joe is happy to call him Pip and treat him like he did when he was younger. But as soon as Pip starts getting better and gaining strength, Joe reverts to calling him â€Å"Sir†: â€Å"I shall be happy fur to see you able, sir†. This could show Joe’s insecurity, that when he is no longer sure if Pip needs him, he becomes very polite, and address Pip as if he is in a higher class again. However, Joe does treat everyone equally, for example when Magwitch confesses about stealing the pie, Joe says that whatever he has done, â€Å"we wouldn’t have you starved to death for it, poor miserable fellow-creature.† This shows how Joe views the world, and the people on it, that we are all of the same kind, and all have the same rights. As well as this, â€Å"creature† implies that Joe believes humans are animals, perhaps why he struggles with classes and formalities. This may relate to the fact that Joe never shows a real desire to learn to read or write, because he thinks we are animals that just do physical things, such as make things, like a blacksmith does. â€Å"Poor† also implies that Joe sympathises with the convict, despite knowing it was his own fault that he is in the position he is in, showing that Joe is very forgiving, which the reader respects him for. Joe shows this forgiveness on a number of occasions, for example, when he tells Pip about his abusive father, and how he came after him and his mother. He tells Pip it was because his â€Å"father were that good in his hart that he couldn’t abear to be without us.† One could argue that this was Joe’s innocent view on the world, and that he couldn’t accept that someone would deliberately want to hurt someone else. But, more likely, it is Joe forgiving his father for what he did. Forgiveness (or the lack of it) is a common theme throughout the novel, but Joe seems to be one of the only one who offers it readily. Not only does Joe forgive his father for abusing him, but also Mrs Joe. He tells Pip that she is a â€Å"fine figure of a woman†. This is somewhat ironic as Mrs Joe has no feminine qualities, not even a female name. It also shows Joe’s respect, if not affection, for Mrs Joe, despite her treating him so badly. For example she regularly abuses him: â€Å"she knocked his head for a little while against the wall behind him.† Joe puts up with her, although he could easily fight back. The image if almost comic, especially the phrase â€Å"for a little while†, it makes it sound like she is just casually doing it for the sake of it. It could also link to the phrase ‘knock some sense into him’, perhaps this is what Mrs Joe is trying to do? At any rate Joe is submissive, showing his selflessness, as he lets her do it so she doesn’t hurt Pip as much (as he explains later). The reader pities Joe, as he is such a kind man, married to an abusive woma n, who takes advantage of his kindness. Joe is very loyal to Pip, and is always there when he needs him. One of Joe’s ‘catch-phrases’ is â€Å"ever the best of friends†. â€Å"Ever† shows his loyalty towards Pip, and gives a sense of stability, he gives Pip something to come back to. As if to prove this loyalty, he pays of Pip’s debts. This is such a big gesture as Joe is the poorest of all men. The moral and emotional image of debt appears a lot throughout the novel, perhaps because debt was a personal issue for Dickens. His family were imprisoned for debt, therefore stopping Dickens’ education, and he bailed his father out many times. In the novel, Pip becomes Joe’s debtor, an image of ownership, like Joe owns Pip. One could argue that this was to do with Joe’s insecurity, and that he needs something solid to connect him to Pip. However, throughout the book, Joe has been completely selfless, so this act could just another example of Joe’s kindness. Ther e are also religious overtones to this, he is doing a Christian deed. There are several religious links associated with Joe, for example, Joe takes in Pip a a child â€Å"God bless the poor little child, there’s room for him at the forge.† This could be a reference to the Nativity story, when the innkeepers turn Mary away. Add this to the Christian deeds he does (like paying off Pip’s debt), give Joe an almost saint-like quality. But Dickens needs to balance the character, otherwise we may just view him as a perfect religious figure and would then find it hard to view him as a realistic role model for Pip. So Dickens makes Joe childish, innocent, illiterate and also includes some comedy moments. For example, when Joe has learned to write, he writes a letter to Biddy. Dickens writes this in a very comedic way, possibly overly so. Joe â€Å"constantly dipped his pen into space, and seemed satisfied with the result†, it is almost mocking him. As well as this, it is written like a performance for Pip, but throughout the novel Joe has been the only one who can’t act (e.g. he can’t deal with formal situations and pretend to be something he is not) or pretend. So why does Dickens include these humorous details? Possibly it could be to balance out Joe as a character, for if he was just a religious prophet, he would lose his power in the novel. Or alternatively, it could be to lighten the mood and relieve the tension between Pip and Joe. Or perhaps it is to show Joe fulfilling his mother’s expectations, of Joe being a â€Å"scholar†, to show that it can be done. This may provide hope for the reader, that Pip might be able to fulfill his own expectat ions eventually. Although that wouldn’t explain why it is so over the top. Some characters only see this side of Joe, the awkward, clown-like side. Pip says that Jaggers â€Å"recognised in Joe the village idiot and me his keeper.† Jaggers doesn’t understand Joe, he doesn’t know about Joe’s forgiving, loyal nature, he just sees an â€Å"idiot†. This could be reinforcing our first introduction to Joe, where he is described as foolish. Again this could be to balance the character of Joe, rather then make the reader view him negatively, as we know Joe is a very wise character. Jaggers believes this because Joe cries when he tells him about Pip’s expectations, and has to be comforted by Pip. Joe demonstrates many female tendencies throughout the novel, especially when he is caring for Pip at the end of the book, â€Å"Joe had actually laid his head down on the pillow at my side.† This is ironic considering his strength. Perhaps he is compensating for Mrs Joe’s lack of femininity, or he is filling in the gap left by her death, showing Joe to be a father figure for Pip. Ultimately, Joe is the only true father to Pip, he gives him â€Å"the wealth of his great nature†, which is more than Magwitch ever did. He may not have a lot of money, but he is a true gentleman in character. Ironically, the poorest of all the men is the most gentlemanly. Moreover, Pip eventually comes to realise this: â€Å"there was a simple dignity in him.† Now, whilst he is recognising Joe’s dignity, he doesn’t sound very respectful. The tone sounds quite patronising, and â€Å"simple† implies stupidity. Overall, Joe is the only constant in the book, he can’t act, he can’t pretend to be something he is not, he doesn’t change for anyone – â€Å"whoever came about me, still settled down into Joe.† Even the use of the word â€Å"settled† gives the idea of stability and constants, Joe is always there for Pip. He acts as a role model for Pip, and the other characters, even if they don’t realise it. But he does have his negative qualities, he is childish and awkward. However, this gives him more power in the book, as the reader can relate to him, and not just view him as a religious saint-like figure.

Basic Counseling

A married woman had a conflict with her best friend because of money. She needed so much in putting up her business and for its permits. As she waited until the business grows up, she needed more for the benefit of her family. Her husband was sick and had no capacity of providing for the whole family. She had no choice, but to borrow money and take the risk of being a first time business woman.The friend lent her so much with incurring interests of almost 25 percent of the total debts. The woman was not able to pay on time because of the problems that came her way the past few months.Due to that, a feud arose. The situation of her husband became worse that required her to spend much and work a little harder. Because of working and too much thinking, she developed insomnia that led to her body losing weight. One of her children had to stop studying because she could not longer subsidize his needs. There were many speculations spreading in their place. There were a lot of stories made out of the problem that they were having. Some even exaggerated the issue that put the married woman and her family in a very humiliating situation. All eyes were on them that made them feel really bad.The family members, especially the mother did not wan to go out anymore to socialize and came to the point of just lying down in the bed and doing nothing. She feared even the mere fact of opening their gate when someone visits and was scared of facing their relatives due to unwanted questioning. She stopped functioning well even in the house that led to some misunderstandings between her and her husband and the children themselves. She even heard from her sister that her son did not want to admit to his classmates how they are related, because he never wanted to be asked and be treated unequally by others.Instead of talking to the friend that she owed from, she opted to cut the communication between them by not answering her calls and hiding every time she comes to their house. That made the feud worse. Because the friend thought she really never wanted to pay, she tried asking legal advices to sue the married woman. The woman never cared at all. It seemed like her financial problem let her identity change. She was never the same woman again. One day, as she was sleeping in the couch, she heard people talking outside. Mush to her realization, they were the police in their place trying to look for her.She went out and was brought by the police in heir office for some interrogation. Although very much ashamed of the neighbors watching them, she never tried hiding her face, because as much as she wanted to, the people around her would still know that it was her. So she believed there was no chance of escaping from embarrassment. Her friend, together with the police, asked her so many things about their issue and asked her to sign in a contract saying she would pay in months time together with the incurred interests. She was very much ashamed of what happened. She always cried.Her family sympathized so much with her. They were findings way to help her in paying and cheered her up for her to forget her problem even in a little while. Soon they discovered it was futile doing that. What they did was invite relatives to visit her who were all telling her that everything would turn out right. To their disappointment, it did not help too much. Even being obedient to her did not do too good in the problem. Although everyone noticed that she was needing help, nobody succeeded in making their part. She cried more and slept less. Her physical appearance talked much about what she was suffering then.She never talked about the debt and chose to walk away from the situation as much as possible. Because it seemed like it was helping, the family never mentioned about it anymore. But time went by, the due date was coming. And there, the problem started again. The same scenarios were seen regarding her behavior. I believe that the situation is not just a shal low one. It talks about money; therefore it needs to be dealing with some more legal and psychological advices. The family members, as noted, never bothered asking how the problem started and were the money was used.Nobody even asked the history of the feud and the reason why the woman was so much affected with the issue. It is just stated that they found ways to cheer her up and to help her, without even knowing the proper way of doing it and the best things that woman needed. She was not asked how much she was needing. They can also ask the help of a professional for her easy recovery on the matter. They might have used the counseling techniques for the subject to easily cope up with the situation. According to a website regarding counseling skills, it is very important to listen and communicate well to make up the major part of good counseling.What these kinds of people actually needs is the assurance that they are accurately heard by their peers and listeners. It is always best to see them calm down after they tell you their insights on the matter. They must also do probing because that is the only way to find out what else they are feeling, other than what is being asked of them. They must have used open-ended questions for them to be able to elaborate on their answers and freely state what they are feeling. Through that, the person’s burden will be lessened and would feel better. It is always good to have your feeling voiced out and revealed in a free manner.Given the freedom of speech, one gets the feeling of relief and loses the tension that she or he is experiencing. Communication is a very useful tool in helping a person feel better after a very depressing experience. In fact, many people who experienced unaccepted death of relatives and other related issues seek the help of professionals for counseling. The counsel must not be very formal in dealing with this. He or she must chose the most comfortable position while talking to the client and must show interest for the client to feel open about the situation and say more of what he or she is undergoing.What they only wanted is for them to be heard. They may use empathetic responses to the clients as they share their stories. Through this, the client would see that the counsel was able to attend well to his or her story and fully understood what she or he is feeling at the moment. They can also use the method of summarizing and paraphrasing the problem of a client. The counsel must ask the client what she or he is feeling and narrate it according to his or her desire. After hearing the client’s side, the counsel will then repeat what the she or he said to clarify issues and make sure he or she heard the client right.The counsel must use his or her own words in repeating the story for them to be ale to see the experience in a different view or perspective. By seeing it that way, the person will recognize new feelings that was not experienced believe and will therefo re be enlightened with everything. The role of the counsel is so vital because it is them who take part in the counseling. Without their proper knowledge on the right way of counseling, the purpose of it will be futile. The aim of helping the person in any manner will be useless because the rules were not executed properly.They must have a wide knowledge on counseling aside from the basics to have a successful one. Knowing the counseling techniques will be a stepping stone to be a very effective counsel that everyone looks for nowadays. In general, listening to the client, probing for further information, asking open ended questions for freedom in answering, giving emphatic responses for affection, summarizing and paraphrasing stories can be useful techniques in counseling. Many people must apply this in real life events. The person being interviewed is a woman with sic children. Four of which are boys and the rest are girls.She was a member of a broken family and had a very traumat izing experience when she was younger. Her education was sponsored by her Aunt who believed so much in her potentials and talents. She had a lot of friends in and out of school. She never bothered approaching people for friendship, instead the other people go to her to introduce themselves. She was a woman with full confidence and courage. She used to join beauty and academic contests where she gained a lot of fame and awards. She was known by everyone, because she has the beauty, the brains and the attitude.Everyone was her friend and all of them were kind to her. She came from a remote area and married a man whom she met in tertiary school. They were a happy couple then. They had all the things that they need, without forcing anyone in working. They both have good jobs that are able to provide for the needs of their family. They were indeed a happy family surrounded with love and care. It just by fate that the husband suffered from arthritis that later turned into the worse versio n of it. Every joint was already infected which made him paralyzed and bed ridden. There were no ways for him to work anymore.That was the start of all the financial problems. The husband needed therapies as the children needed support for their education. The woman did not give up, instead she worked harder and found ways to earn more. The cooperation that they have is the family is one of the strengths that they are so proud of. Their children were cooperative and everyone was industrious. They always make sure that they make their part in the house chores and responsibly do the tasks assigned to them. The woman was brave and was courageous in all the problems and challenges that come her way.She was kind to everyone that made it possible for other people to also treat her well. She is educated and was able to finish her degree with several achievements. She was always doing her best to be on top. She was technically a career woman and a successful one. Her weaknesses include her financial constraints. A lot of things get affected with her problems with money. She had been asking people to lend her some and promised to give it back in a particular day. She lost her word of honor that is why many people do not trust her at all.She had difficulty in building that trust since she did not do what she promised to the people around her. Also, because of working too much and spending a lot of time outside their home, she lost track of her children. Her family, on the other hand, did not know her at all that much. They had difficulty dealing with her because they did not know the approach to use for them to be able to start the conversation the right way. She already lost her identity outside the home and has been opting to choose going out with other people than her family.The problem that she is currently dealing with right now is the treatment and prejudice of other people towards her. A lot of the people around have not been the same anymore. Every relationship that she has with others is very civil. The intimacy of her relationships with others was lost. A lot of things changed. She’s thinking that it has something to do with her recent problem with money. She never wanted to discuss and explain to them the issue, so it ended up losing intimate relationships. Her companions are never the same people again. She also lost her confidence in everything that she does.She never asked about her old friends and just remained as she is now after the incident. Although many people stare at her when she passes by or even if strangers never forget to glance at her when she’s out, she never dared explain. She believed that everything happened for the love that she has for her family. Nowadays, a lot of people are seeking help because of some problems dealing with interpersonal issues, including relationships with other people. It is not always that they get the best solution to their problems or even get the half of the satisfaction that they need when they ask for counseling.The main purpose why they seek help is for them to minimize the emotional burden that they are having every time they think of their problems. Also, they are aiming to lessen its effects on the people near them and their daily activities. It is sometimes very serious that it even causes their dysfunction in the society. Culture is a very big factor that mold every individual and their behavior in the society. That thing makes them. It continuously affect their being as they grow older. They can adopt it even if they move out of the place where it came from.It is already difficult removing what you got in the set of culture that your society got. Every person has differences in cultural background and orientation. Each is brought up differently, thus require different approaches in counseling. According to Broom et. al in the book called Sociology: A Core Text with Adapted Readings, cultures vary in their ways of guiding human behavior. Underst anding the clients cultural background would be a very big help in giving off solutions and in the counseling itself. Knowing one’s orientation and composition will be a very big factor in deciding how to approach a client.The counsel will find it easier dealing with him or her, since she somewhat got the technique in counseling the client well. There will be a very little difficulty. There are clients who are sensitive with words and who may get offended once talked to in a manner that another client needed. Some may never want talking about the family. This may be because the client came from a broken one or had a traumatizing experience inside his or her family. Some may not want dwelling too much on personal issues like the sexual ones. Knowing this will have a great impact on the role of the counsel in active listening.Cultural competence is very much relevant in dealing with this kind of issues since they are dealing with people in cross-cultural contexts. According to a website, â€Å"Cultural competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes and policies and strategies that join in a system, agency, or among professionals and enable them to work effectively to cross-cultural situations both in prevention and treatment contexts† (Cross, Dazron, Dennis and Isaacs, 1989). Cultural competence therefore is the ability to deal with the problems of people and relationships coming from different places with different cultural background.It is important to have that ability because today counseling is in demand. It will be very useful applying that ability in giving the right solutions. It is true that each person who asks for counseling has his or her own story that we must understand both in his or her context and ours. Cultural competence also helped in the relationship between the counsel and the client. It is a pre-requisite to an open relationship, which can lead to honesty and sincerity, which can make the counseling easier and more per sonal. Let us take for example the case that I have mentioned above.The woman lives in a remote are. There are probably very few people there, which means that only a number of persons know her and talk about if ever they do. Her situation now is very much different since she is living in the city where a lot of people see her everyday. Her sensitivity of gossips probably rooted out of that fact. She may not be used to people doing that to her. She is also famous in school. She had a lot of friends. Everyone knew and adored her. But her setting changed into somewhat chaotic when she gained friend whom put her into shame later on.Her trauma might have come from the reality that she is not used of being betrayed and treated in a not so nice manner. She came from a broken family, which might have taught her the values of having a beautiful family. After the family members that she has now gets affected with what she was going through, she already gave up because of the fear of having t he same kind of family again. She had a reputation in the place where she came from. Remember, she had the beauty, the brains and the attitude, so she can’t accept the fact that she became laugh stuff in the place where she is living now.The culture in their place is very much different with the culture that she is witnessing now. Moreover, her experiences in academic and beauty contests were the reasons why she was talked about in that remote area where she came from and not about debts. The counsel must find the most efficient way to hip her by studying her cultural background and be aware of the present differences. The role of the counsel is not basically to listen, but to understand. How more can he understand if he does not even know where the client came from and the cultures that brought him up?If the counsel is able to help her out of this, she may be able to function well again. She can go back to work and provide the needs of her family. She will again understand w hy she works alone and why her friend did that to her. She may go back to her normal life and be confident again with actions. She may even discover that she also sinned by not facing her friend to talk about the matter. And who knows, she may have her lost relationships back. The efficiency of a counsel can be seen on the client. I have presented in this paper that counseling plays an important role in the society.They can help patients change for the better and realize what is wrong with them by just listening and understanding their cases. In the past, counseling is just done to mentally ill patients. But now, even the mere fact that you are sad can already require professional counseling. We can’t deny that one of its purposes is to lessen attempts of suicide and other things that a patient can do due to too much depression. The counsel must be very responsible about this because ending up an interpersonal problem somewhat depends on them. They must find a way to learn wh at must be learned in order for them to be called as such.Their primary roles must given attention to by enhancing their talents in helping people with problems. References Bonjean, C. M. , D. Broom, and L. Broom. 1990. Sociology: A Core Text With Adapted Readings. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Cultural Competence and Professional Psychology Training. (2008). Retrieved December 7, 2008, from Goliath Website: http://goliath. ecnext. com/coms2/gi_0199-159598/Cultural-competence-and-professional-psychology. html. Counseling Skills: Basic Counseling Skills for Any Situation. (n. d). Retrieved December 7, 2008, from http://www. askmikethecounselor2. com/counselingskills. html.